The encouragement and promotion of cycling is still an emerging field. Research into the area of cycle encouragement helps to refine techniques to ensure they are an effective means of increasing cycle participation. The following research papers are offered to assist practitioners maximise the effectiveness of their programs.
SEGMENT - Segmentation in Mobility Management Tool (EU)
24th Apr 2013
SEGMENT is an Intelligent-Energy-Europe-funded project which tested consumer market segmentation techniques to persuade people to adopt more energy efficient forms of transport, such as walking, cycling, public transport and car sharing. The results show the potential and the limitations of segmentation, the difficulties in evaluation and the large learning potential within EU-projects.
Inactive Lifestyles Kill an Estimated 36,815 People in England Each Year (England)
15th Apr 2013
Lack of physical activity could cause as many as 36,815 premature deaths in England each year, according to statistics released today by the South West Public Health Observatory (SWPHO) and charity Sustrans.
The statistics have been produced to help local authorities estimate how much they could reduce death and illness by promoting physical activity.
They show that current levels of physical activity among people aged 40-79 are low across England and that major health gains could be made if they increased.
Triggers for Changes in Cycling: The Role of Life Events and Modifications to the Environment (UK)
05th Apr 2013
This paper, published in the Journal of Transport Geography in March 2013, presents findings from in-depth interviews that sought to understand the circumstances and factors that influenced people to start, stop or significantly change their amount of cycling. The interviews were held with residents of 12 towns and cities in England that were experiencing an unprecedented scale of investment in cycling by UK standards.
Uniquely satisfied: Exploring cyclist satisfaction (USA)
20th Feb 2013
This research report was published online in the journal Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour in February 2013. The study examines the effect of built environment characteristics, trip characteristics and season on cycling trip satisfaction. It groups respondents into “cyclist types” based on a cluster analysis of motivations for cycling and their alternate (winter) mode, and explores how these personal characteristics moderate the relationship between built environment, trip characteristics and expressed trip satisfaction.
A systematic review of the effectiveness of organisational travel plans: Improving the evidence base for transport decisions (International)
05th Feb 2013
This research reviewed the way organisational travel plans (OTPs) are assessed. OTPs aim to address health and sustainability goals in transport. Evidence for their effectiveness is lacking. The researchers recommend that OTP implementation needs to occur alongside robustly-designed epidemiologic studies. The research was published in the journal Transport Policy in January 2013.
The factors influencing car use in a cycle-friendly city: the case of Cambridge (UK)
02nd Jan 2013
This research, published in the Journal of Transport Geography in April 2013, compares the use of the car and bicycle for work, shopping and leisure trips. The key findings are that commuting distance and free workplace parking were strongly associated with use of the car for work trips, and car availability and lower levels of education were associated with car use for leisure, shopping and short-distanced commuting trips. The case of Cambridge shows that more policies could be adopted, particularly a reduction in free car parking, to increase cycling and reduce the use of the car, especially over short distances.
Examining the potential for modal change: Motivators and barriers for bicycle commuting in Dar-es-Salaam (Africa)
03rd Dec 2012
This research paper, published in the journal Transport Policy in November 2012, examines the effect of various motivators, barriers and policy related interventions (i.e., personal, social and physical–environmental factors) on bicycle commuting in Dares-Salaam, Tanzania.
What are the ingredients of successful travel behavioural change campaigns? (EU)
03rd Dec 2012
This research paper, published in the journal Transport Policy in November 2012, examines evidence from 20 behavioural change projects and identifies common and specific elements which led to their success. The paper identifies best practice elements for travel campaigns and finds successful design elements are specific to target group and behavioural aims, and that social marketing provides a solid guiding set of principles for campaign design.
Understanding the fear of bicycle riding in Australia
16th Nov 2012
Rates of bicycle commuting currently hover around 1 -2% in most Australian capital cities, although 17.8% of Australians report riding at least once per week. The most commonly stated reason for choosing not to ride a bicycle is fear of motorised vehicles. This paper, published in the Journal of the Australasian College of Road Safety in September 2012, sets out to examine the literature and offer a commentary regarding the role fear plays as a barrier to bicycle riding.
Parental chauffeurs: what drives their transport choice? (Australia)
23rd Oct 2012
This research, published in the Journal of Transport Geography in 2012 explores the prevalence, reasons and socio-demographics of parents who drive their children to/from school and to other local destinations. The authors found that despite the health benefits of active transport parental chauffeuring was pervasive. Parental employment patterns, concern about traffic injury and lack of social trust were related to parental chauffeuring.
Common ground: Eight factors that influence walking and biking to school (USA)
23rd Oct 2012
This research, published in the journal Transport Policy in November 2012, reviewed quantitative and qualitative research and identified eight common factors that influenced the choice of active travel to school: distance to school, parental fear of traffic and crime, family schedule constraints and values, neighborhood and family resources and culture, weather, and school characteristics.
Incompetent or Too Competent? Negotiating Everyday Cycling Identities in a Motor Dominated Society (UK)
30th Aug 2012
This article, by Rachel Aldred and published in the journal Mobilities in June 2012, uses the concept of stigma to explore cycling identities in the UK. Drawing on interview data, it argues that people who cycle are caught between two threats: appearing too competent as a cyclist (a ‘proper cyclist’), and appearing not competent enough (a ‘bad cyclist’).
Evaluation of the Cycling City and Towns Programme (UK)
17th Aug 2012
In August 2012 the UK Department of Transport published the findings from qualitative research undertaken with residents of the Cycling City and Towns. It explores their cycling behaviour and how they responded to the investment in cycling in their local areas. The research identifies: the key triggers for changes in how people choose to travel; and the contextual factors which support or constrain cycling at those points – including the role of cycling schemes and interventions. This provides new insights on cycling behavioural change for decision makers and researchers in transport and other sectors.
Transportation and the New Generation (USA)
17th Apr 2012
This report, released by the NJPIRG Law and Policy Center in April 2012, demonstrates that Americans have been driving less since the middle of last decade. The report, 'Transportation and the New Generation: Why Young People are Driving Less and What it Means for Transportation Policy', shows that young people in particular are decreasing the amount they drive and increasing their use of transportation alternatives.
Analyzing the time frame for the transition from leisure-cyclist to commuter-cyclist (Korea)
03rd Apr 2012
Published in the journal Transportation in August 2010, this study examined how long it would take for a leisure-cyclist to become a commuter-cyclist. The study found that young white-collar workers who live in high-rise apartments and enjoy intensive leisure-cycling in groups, are a good target toward whom promotions for commuter-cycling should be focused.
Physical activity by stealth? The potential health benefits of a workplace transport plan (UK)
02nd Apr 2012
This study investigated the effect of a workplace travel plan, which mainly focused on restricting parking opportunities, on levels of active commuting and its potential to contribute to public health. The results, published in the journal Public Health in April 2011, suggests that transport plans aimed at reducing car usage should be considered as a feasible and effective strategy for increasing health-enhancing physical activity among the workforce.
Do Health Benefits Outweigh the Costs of Mass Recreational Programs? An Economic Analysis of Four CiclovÃa Programs (International)
23rd Dec 2011
This study, published in the Journal of Urban Health in December 2011 analysed the costs and participation numbers of four Ciclovía events. The Ciclovía is a regular multisectorial community-based program in which streets are temporarily closed for motorized transport, allowing exclusive access to individuals for recreational activities and physical activity. The study found that the health benefits of these type of events far exceed the costs.
The possible effect on frequency of cycling if mandatory bicycle helmet legislation was repealed in Sydney (Australia)
14th Dec 2011
This research report by Chris Rissel and Li Ming Wen was published in the December 2011 edition of the Health Promotion Journal of Australia. The research examined the possible effect of repealing mandatory
bicycle helmet legislation on the frequency of cycling in Sydney.
Social Inclusive Bicycle Riding in Multicultural Australia (Australia)
04th Nov 2011
This research report by Dr Siew-Fang Law, Victoria University, was written in July 2011. The research investigates cultural differences in attitudes and perceptions of cycling with recently arrived migrants, refugees and international students. The research focuses on people from Japanese, Vietnamese, Sri Lankan and Arab African backgrounds, residing in Melbourne.
Assessment of the type of cycling infrastructure required to attract new cyclists (New Zealand)
26th Oct 2011
Published by the NZ Transport Agency in Oct 2011, this publication reports on research conducted from July 2008 to January 2010 that investigated what type of cycling infrastructure is need to attract new cyclists. The research involved undertaking an international literature review followed by national surveys and Christchurch-based focus groups, to gain an understanding of some of the motivations and barriers associated with utilitarian cycling, and to evaluate a range of cycling facilities.
Best practice in OHSW mass media campaigns (Australia)
11th Oct 2011
This report, by Centre for Automotive Safety Research, Adelaide, was released in August 2011. It provides a timely review of what is currently known about occupational health, safety and welfare (OHSW) mass media campaign design and evaluation. It examines the use of mass media to effect behaviour change.
Climate Change and Individual Decision Making (EU)
26th Sep 2011
This working paper by Francesca Pongiglione was published by Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei (FEEM) in September 2011. It considers three components of environmental decision making and proposes that all three are needed for behaviour change.
'I'll just take the car' Improving bicycle transportation to encourage its use on short trips (New Zealand)
16th Sep 2011
This research report, published in February 2011, is the culmination of a New Zealand research project by Massey University and Otago Polytechnic which ran from July 2008 to June 2010. The project included a literature review of overseas best practice for integrated local cycling policies, a review of the New Zealand cycling market, a survey of cyclists and non-cyclists to examine the perception of bicycles and cyclists, and practical workshops that explored the effect of direct cycling experience on perceptions.
Understanding walking and cycling: Summary of key findings and recommendations (UK)
16th Sep 2011
This report, published in September 2011, provides a summary of the aims, methods and key findings arising from a three year EPSRC-funded research project on the role of walking and cycling for everyday travel in English urban areas. The overall aim of the research was to gain a clear understanding of the factors that structure everyday travel in England and, especially, to investigate the reasons why people do and do not undertake short everyday journeys on foot or by bike.
Bicycle Commuting in Melbourne During the 2000s Energy Crisis: A Semiparametric Analysis of Intraday Volumes (Australia)
19th Aug 2011
This research by Michael S. Smith and Goeran Kauermann was published in Transportation Research Part B: Methodology in August 2011. Unlike previous studies that use aggregate data, the empirical results show a substantial meteorological and seasonal component to usage of Melbourne's cycleways. The results also suggest there was substitution into cycling as a mode of transport in response to increases in petrol prices, particularly during peak commuting periods and by commuters originating in wealthy and inner city neighbourhoods.
Cycling and Transport Policy in NSW (Aus)
05th Aug 2011
This briefing paper by the NSW Parliamentary Library Research Service presents an overview of the contemporary debate on cycling. It summarises the transport issues facing NSW, presents an account of the state of cycling in NSW and in Sydney in particular, and compares cycling in Sydney with the other Australian capital cities and with selected international cities.It was released in August 2010.
Travel time competitiveness of cycling in Sydney (Aus)
03rd Aug 2011
This working paper by Richard B Ellison and Stephen Greaves, Institute of Transport and Logistic Studies, University of Sydney was released in March 2011. The analysis suggests that around 20 percent of people could switch totally from cars to bicycles without incurring more than a 20 minute additional increase in travel time on average per day.
Transport for London's Analysis of Cycling Potential (UK)
03rd Aug 2011
This report by Transport for London was released in December 2010 and presents the results of analysis carried out to understand the potential for growth in cycle travel. The goal of this analysis was to better understand the nature of this potential, in terms of what type of trips, people and places offer the best opportunity for growth.
Understanding Walking and Cycling: UK Research Project
04th Jul 2011
The Understanding Walking & Cycling research project, is a collaboration between Lancaster University, the University of Leeds and Oxford Brookes University in the UK.The three year study, which commenced in October 2008, investigates travel behavior in relation to short journeys in urban areas in England.
Riding a Bike for Transport: 2011 Survey Results (Australia)
22nd Jun 2011
In March 2011, The National Heart Foundation and the Cycling Promotion Fund conducted an online survey in relation to riding a bike for transport. The research found that more than 62% of Australians want to be able to ride a bike for transport, but road safety fears are keeping bikes in the shed and off the road.
Cycling Infrastructure for Australian Cities
25th Mar 2011
Major Cities Unit, Infrastructure Australia,
Background Paper, March 2009
European Cities Crack Down On Free Parking to Reduce Car Use, Make Room for Biking, Walking
24th Jan 2011
by Jennifer Hattam, Istanbul, Turkey on 01.23.11
TreeHugger - Cars & Transportation
City of Sydney Social Research (Australia)
21st Jan 2011
In 2007, the City of Sydney commissioned independent research to look into the attitudes of Sydneysiders to cycling and to find out how people travel into and around the local government area.
Bike Now: Encouraging cycle commuting in New Zealand
21st Dec 2010
Research report 414 Bike Now: Encouraging cycle commuting in New Zealand
Pinnacle Research and Policy Ltd, Carolyn O'Fallon, Sep 2010, NZ Transport Agency
Motivators and deterrents of bicycling: comparing influences on decisions to ride
28th Oct 2010
Meghan Winters, Gavin Davidson, Diana Kao and Kay Teschke Â© Springer, Part of Springer Science+Business Media
All-cause mortality associated with physical activity during leisure time, work, sports, and cycling to work (Denmark)
28th Sep 2010
This highly regarded Danish study, published in 2000, assessed the health status of 30,000 people over a 14 year period to measure the health benefits of cycling. The researchers found that, with all other factors being equal, simply cycling to work lowered the risk of death by 40%.
Transport, health and the environment (International)
28th Sep 2010
This landmark World Health Organisation publication from 2000 looks at the inter-relationship between transport, health and the environment. This paper offers a comprehensive outline of the importance of reducing car use and increasing the proportion of trips conducted by active modes of transport.
Cycling is for everyone: The key to public and political support (USA)
28th Sep 2010
This 2007 presentation by John Pucher, one of the world’s leading transport academics on the relationship between transport and health, with a particular focus on cycling. This presentation provides a comprehensive set of data and imagery outlining the importance of increasing rates of cycling and what needs to be done to make it happen.
National Survey of Bicyclist and Pedestrian Attitudes and Behavior (USA)
28th Sep 2010
This 2008 report presents findings from the National Survey of Bicyclist and Pedestrian Attitudes and Behavior, jointly sponsored by the U.S. Department of Transportation’s National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) and the Bureau of Transportation Statistics (BTS) and administered by The Gallup Organization. The goals of the survey were to ascertain the scope and magnitude of bicycle and pedestrian activity and the public’s behavior and attitudes regarding bicycling and walking.
Creating Active Rural Communities (Canada)
28th Sep 2010
This case study presented by Pedestrian and Bicycle Information Center looks at programs in Haliburton County, Ontario designed to encourage active transport in this large rural area.
Intermodal Transportation Planning and Development: A Closer Look at Linking Transit to Bicycling and Walking (USA)
28th Sep 2010
This case study, presented by the Pedestrian and Bicycle Information Center (USA), looks at intermodal transport planning in Tucson, Arizona.
Cycling to Work in Sydney - analysis of journey to work Censis data from 2001-2006
28th Sep 2010
This 2008 report issued by the Health Promotion Service, Sydney South West Area Health Service examines whether there have been changes in levels of cycling in Sydney between the 2001 and 2006 Census, extending an earlier analysis of data from the 1996 and 2001 Census.
Mass community cycling events: who participates and is their behaviour influenced by participation? (AUS)
28th Sep 2010
This 2006 academic paper published in the International Journal of Behavioural Nutrition and Physical Activity investigates the type of people participating in mass cycling events and the subsequent effect on cycling behaviour.
Cycling: Getting Australia Moving: Barriers, facilitators and interventions to get more Australians physically active through cycling
27th Sep 2010
This 2008 report published by the Cycling Promotion Fund questions what barriers exist to more adult Australians cycling and what can be done to overcome these hurdles.
Promoting bike-and-ride: The Dutch experience
21st Sep 2010
This academic paper published in 2007 discusses the experiences with, and impacts of the number of policy initiatives undertaken in recent years in the Netherlands designed to promote the use of bike-and-ride (that is the combined use of bicycling and public transport in a single trip).
Why Canadians cycle more than Americans: A comparative analysis of bicycling trends and policies
20th Sep 2010
This research paper, published in the journal Transport Policy in 2006, compares bicycle trends and policies in the USA and Canada. In spite of their colder climate, Canadians cycle about three times more than Americans. The main reasons for this difference are Canada’s higher urban densities and mixed-use development, shorter trip distances, lower incomes, higher costs of owning, driving and parking a car, safer cycling conditions, and more extensive cycling infrastructure and training programs.
Guide to Promoting Bicycle on Federal Lands (USA)
20th Sep 2010
This 2008 ‘Guide to promoting bicycling on federal lands’ was published by the US Federal Highway Administration.
Economic appraisal of local walking and cycling routes (UK)
17th Sep 2010
In this 2006 report by the UK sustainable transport charity Sustrans has taken the Government’s own methods of assessing the economic benefits of transport schemes and applied them to a number of local walking and cycling routes. The results show them to have a benefit to cost ratio of 20:1. This is in stark contrast to the typical ratio of just 3:1 for other transport schemes such as rail and roads.
The economic significance of cycling (International)
17th Sep 2010
This study published in the Netherlands in 2000 and authored by R Spreekmeester, R Wittink and J Van Den Berg assesses the various costs and benefits of cycling in various parts of the world. Their wide ranging analysis covers the costs of traffic and infrastructure, economic considerations and the health and environmental benefits of cycling, etc.