Transport: Environmental Impacts
Congestion Costing Critique Critical Evaluation of the “ Urban Mobility Report" (US)
25th Apr 2013
Produced by the Canadian Victoria Transport Policy Institute and authored by Todd Littman in April 2013, the 'Urban Mobility Report' (UMR) is a widely-cited U.S. study that estimates U.S. traffic congestion costs. This report critically examines the UMR’s assumptions and methods. The UMR evaluates urban transport system performance based only on vehicle traffic congestion; it ignores other modes and impacts.
The true costs of automobility: Study about the external costs of car use (EU)
19th Dec 2012
This report published in October 2012 by the University of Dresden's Faculty of Transport and Science, was prepared for the European Greens and European Free Alliance. Car use is an important part of daily life in the EU and it clearly creates huge benefits for the users. Naturally there are also costs for car mobility: obvious costs but also less obvious ones, such as costs arising from noise and pollution. This study estimates the magnitude of these hidden costs of car mobility and the ways in which these costs are currently being financed.
Replacing car trips by increasing bike and public transport in the greater Barcelona metropolitan area: A health impact assessment study (EU)
04th Dec 2012
This research published in the journal Environment International in November 2012, estimates the health risks and benefits of mode shifts from car to cycling and public transport in the metropolitan area of Barcelona, Spain. It found that around 66 lives would be saved if 40% of the trips now made by car were underatken by bicycle.
Changing Course in Urban Transport: An Illustrated Guide (International)
28th Nov 2012
This illustrated guide, published by the Asian Development Bank in 2011, provides a rich collection of images of sustainable urban transport initiatives from around the world. It considers the transport problems evident in many cities in Asia, including high levels of energy consumption, carbon dioxide emissions, congestion, road casualties, urban sprawl, and social exclusion.
Speed Kills: The Complex Links Between Transport, Lack of Time and Urban Health (Australia)
16th Oct 2012
This paper, published in the Journal Urban Health in March 2010, uses the concept of ‘effective speed’ to demonstrate that attempts to ‘save time’ through increasing the speed of motorists is ultimately futile. Paradoxically, if planners wish to provide urban residents with more time for healthy behaviours (such as exercise and preparing healthy food), then, support for the ‘slower’ active modes of transport should be encouraged.
Moving urban trips from cars to bicycles: impact of health and emissions (New Zealand)
12th Oct 2012
This research, published in the Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health in 2011, estimates the effects on health, air pollution and greenhouse gas emissions if short trips (≤7 km) were undertaken by bicycle rather than motor car. The authors concluded that the health benefits of moving from cars to bikes heavily outweigh the costs of injury from road crashes.
Review of public health and productivity benefits from different urban transport and related land use options (Australia)
12th Oct 2012
This paper was presented at The 5th Healthy Cities Conference held in Geelong, Australia in June 2012. It provides heath and economic rationale for developing urban forms geared towards active travel. This review is the first stage of a project supported by the CSIRO which examines developing potential human health impacts of future urban development scenarios.
Car Culture, Transport Policy, and Public Health (International)
02nd Oct 2012
This chapter, from the publication Globilzation and Health published in 2006, discusses the health impacts of car reliance. The various health impacts caused by the modern private motor-vehicle-based transport system includes car crash injuries, lung and heart effects of vehicle-related air pollution, disturbance and blood pressure effects of noise, reduced physical activity and associated obesity, and community disruption from major roads.
Transport Problems Facing Large Cities (Australia)
23rd Sep 2010
This paper, published in 2008 by the NSW Parliamentary Library, considers the problems facing transport policy in large cities. As the world’s cities have become home to the vast majority of their national population, governments are faced with the challenge of providing transport infrastructure to accommodate the needs of their citizens. In many of the world’s largest cities, the majority of travel is by private car, which poses two problems – road congestion and greenhouse gas emissions.
Win-Win Transportation Emission Reduction Strategies (Canada)
17th Sep 2010
This paper, published by The Victoria Transport Policy Institute in 2011, introduces a range of market-based policy reforms aimed at increasing transport efficiency, improving health and reducing emissions.
Cycling and the Environment (Europe)
17th Sep 2010
This briefing, published by the European Network for Cycling Expertise in 2003, focuses on the environmental problems associated with motorised transport and identifies and discusses cycling’s role as an alternative, environmentally-benign mode of transport.