Transport: Health Impacts
Inactive Lifestyles Kill an Estimated 36,815 People in England Each Year (England)
15th Apr 2013
Lack of physical activity could cause as many as 36,815 premature deaths in England each year, according to statistics released today by the South West Public Health Observatory (SWPHO) and charity Sustrans.
The statistics have been produced to help local authorities estimate how much they could reduce death and illness by promoting physical activity.
They show that current levels of physical activity among people aged 40-79 are low across England and that major health gains could be made if they increased.
Using Health Impact Assessments to Evaluate Bicycle and Pedestrian Plans (USA)
08th Feb 2013
This white paper, published in January 2013 by the Pedestrian and Bicycle Information Center, examines the potential of Health Impact Assessments (HIA) to help transport agencies make more informed decisionsin their planning processes. HIA is a systematic, flexible approach that uses data, research, and stakeholder input to assess the health effects of policies or projects.
Replacing car trips by increasing bike and public transport in the greater Barcelona metropolitan area: A health impact assessment study (EU)
04th Dec 2012
This research published in the journal Environment International in November 2012, estimates the health risks and benefits of mode shifts from car to cycling and public transport in the metropolitan area of Barcelona, Spain. It found that around 66 lives would be saved if 40% of the trips now made by car were underatken by bicycle.
Changing Course in Urban Transport: An Illustrated Guide (International)
28th Nov 2012
This illustrated guide, published by the Asian Development Bank in 2011, provides a rich collection of images of sustainable urban transport initiatives from around the world. It considers the transport problems evident in many cities in Asia, including high levels of energy consumption, carbon dioxide emissions, congestion, road casualties, urban sprawl, and social exclusion.
Prolonged sitting in cars: Prevalence, socio-demographic variations, and trends (Australia)
02nd Nov 2012
Prolonged sitting is detrimentally associated with health outcomes. However, the prevalence and characteristics of those who sit in cars for long periods are not well understood. This study used the Sydney Greater Metropolitan Area Household Travel Survey, to examine the population prevalence, socio-demographic variations, and trends for prolonged sitting in cars among adults. It was published in the journal Preventive Medicine in October 2012.
Promoting Active Transportation: An Opportunity for Public Health (USA)
30th Oct 2012
Citing the growing rates of obesity and physical inactivity, this primer shows how health can be considered in transportation planning and the role that public health practitioners can play in growing stronger and more active communities. It was published in September 2012 by the American Public Health Association and Safe Routes to School.
Speed Kills: The Complex Links Between Transport, Lack of Time and Urban Health (Australia)
16th Oct 2012
This paper, published in the Journal Urban Health in March 2010, uses the concept of ‘effective speed’ to demonstrate that attempts to ‘save time’ through increasing the speed of motorists is ultimately futile. Paradoxically, if planners wish to provide urban residents with more time for healthy behaviours (such as exercise and preparing healthy food), then, support for the ‘slower’ active modes of transport should be encouraged.
Moving urban trips from cars to bicycles: impact of health and emissions (New Zealand)
12th Oct 2012
This research, published in the Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health in 2011, estimates the effects on health, air pollution and greenhouse gas emissions if short trips (≤7 km) were undertaken by bicycle rather than motor car. The authors concluded that the health benefits of moving from cars to bikes heavily outweigh the costs of injury from road crashes.
Review of public health and productivity benefits from different urban transport and related land use options (Australia)
12th Oct 2012
This paper was presented at The 5th Healthy Cities Conference held in Geelong, Australia in June 2012. It provides heath and economic rationale for developing urban forms geared towards active travel. This review is the first stage of a project supported by the CSIRO which examines developing potential human health impacts of future urban development scenarios.
Effects of exposure to traffic noise on health (Australia)
12th Oct 2012
This paper was presented at The 5th Healthy Cities Conference held in Geelong, Australia in June 2012. It reviews the evidence base and policies related to traffic noise in urban areas, and presents a case study of noise mapping and assessing population health impacts (eg. sleep disturbance), in Geelong, Victoria, Australia.
Characteristics of, and insurance payments for, injuries to cyclists in Tasmania, 1990–2010 (Australia)
03rd Oct 2012
This research report, published in the journal Accident Analysis & Prevention in November 2012 describes the characteristics and costs of injuries to cyclists resulting in a 3rd party insurance claim in Tasmania. Cycling injuries made up 2.0% of claims but accounted for 3.4% of the total costs and were among the road user groups with the highest mean costs per claim.
Including health in transport policy agendas: the role of health impact assessment analyses and procedures in the European experience (EU)
02nd Oct 2012
This paper, published in the Bulletin of the World Health Organization in 2003, examines the role of health impact assessment (HIA) in European transport policy. From the mid-1990s, research began to highlight the importance of a wide range of health impacts of transport policy decisions. The Third Ministerial Conference on Environment and Health adopted a Charter on Transport, Environment and Health.
Comparative assessment of transport risks (International)
02nd Oct 2012
This paper, published in the Bulletin of the World Health Organization in 2003, examines the potential of health impact assessment (HIA) and comparative risk assessment (CRA) in transport policy and planning.
Car Culture, Transport Policy, and Public Health (International)
02nd Oct 2012
This chapter, from the publication Globilzation and Health published in 2006, discusses the health impacts of car reliance. The various health impacts caused by the modern private motor-vehicle-based transport system includes car crash injuries, lung and heart effects of vehicle-related air pollution, disturbance and blood pressure effects of noise, reduced physical activity and associated obesity, and community disruption from major roads.
The health risks and benefits of cycling in urban environments compared with car use: health impact assessment study (EU)
15th Aug 2011
This research report, published in the British Medical Journal in June 2011, estimates the risks and benefits to health of travel by bicycle, using a bicycle sharing scheme, compared with travel by car in an urban environment. The study used the public bicycle sharing initiative, Bicing, in Barcelona, Spain as its setting. The study found that by using the bike share scheme, the annual number of deaths avoided was 12.28 and annual carbon dioxide emissions were reduced by an estimated 9 062 344 kg.
Health Economic Assessment Tool for Cycling and Walking (International)
27th Sep 2010
The World Health Organisation published the Health Economic Assessment Tool (HEAT) for Cycling and Walking in 2011. HEAT is an online resource to estimate the economic savings resulting from reductions in mortality as a consequence of regular cycling and/or walking. It is based on best available evidence, with parameters that can be adapted to fit specific situations. Default parameters are valid for the European context.