Design: Public Transport Integration
Linking bicycle and public transport journeys can be an effective way to cover distances or elevations too great to be completed by bicycle alone. Combining bicycles with public transport has been popular for decades in a number of countries. For instance, in the Netherlands, some 30% of train trips start or finish with the bicycle journey. Many Australians are starting to appreciate the benefits of combining cycling with public transport and the following offers an outline of the various combinations possible:
- Bicycle and train travel: Bicycles can either be parked at the station or taken on board some trains.
- Bicycle racks on buses: In Canberra and Brisbane, some bus routes allow bicycles to be carried on specially fitted racks, located on the front of the bus. This particular combination is offered in over 30 cities across the United States of America.
The following resources offer a description of current Australian programs to encourage the combination of bicycles and public transport, as well as international examples of successful programs:
Bicycle Facilities in Holland (EU)
09th Apr 2013
This Wiki, titled Bicycle Facilities in Holland, provides a useful case study and provides insights into infrastructure planning and traffic engineering to support cycling in the Netherlands. This wiki was created by students at Northeastern University and Portland State University based on a summer program to investigate the urban environment of the Netherlands in 2011.
Evaluating bicycle-transit users’ perceptions of intermodal inconvenience (Taiwan)
26th Nov 2012
This research was published in the journal Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice in December 2012. The study demonstrates that perceived inconveniences of combining bicycle and public transport differ based on the users’ sex, riding frequency, trip purpose, and environmental awareness.The results suggest that a male cyclist who is a commuter with a high monthly riding frequency and who is environmentally conscious has a better ability than their counterpart to overcome perceived inconveniences during travel using a bicycle and public transport.
Cycling for Everyone: A Regional Cycling Strategy for Metro Vancouver (Canada)
22nd Nov 2012
This strategy, developed by the Vancouver based transport provider TransLink, aims to guide regional cycling investment and programming to significantly increase cycling and improve cycling safety. The document, published in July 2011, describes the state of cycling in Metro Vancouver, assesses the potential to increase cycling, articulates a clear vision, sets goals and measurable targets, and outlines a comprehensive package of strategies.
Cycling in the Netherlands (EU)
20th Sep 2012
In 2009 the Ministry of Transport and Fietsberaad published this overview of bicycle use and bicycle policy in the Netherlands. It was produced in English and translated into French, German and Spanish. It includes case studies relating to cycling to work, school and the shops, spatial planning, end of trip facilities and infrastructure treatments.
Seamless Transport: Case Study Compendium (International)
12th Sep 2012
The OECD's International Transport Forum released a compendium of case studies related to seamless transport for its 2012 summit. Member countries, intergovernmental organisations, and professional international organizations submitted examples of practices that they considered good or promising in seamless transport. A number of case studies relate to the integration of active and public transport modes.
Bicycle Parking at Train Stations (EU)
07th Sep 2012
This factsheet, published in March 2011 by the German Institute of Urban Affairs, examines the advantages for cyclists and for the public transport system of Bike & Ride facilities.
A technical evaluation of bicycle carriage on Victorian trains and coaches (Australia)
29th Aug 2012
In 2010 the Institute for Sensible Transport was commissioned by the Victorian Government to produce a technical evaluation of the carriage of bikes on public transport in Victoria. The study investigated practical ways to carry bicycles on regional public transport in Victoria, in order to create a more integrated transport system. Recommendations support the combination of these sustainable modes of transport, while recognising the requirements of public transport operators and other passengers.
Cycle-Rail Toolkit (UK)
24th Aug 2012
In August 2012 the UK Department for Transport published a Cycle-Rail Toolkit to help train operators make it easier for people to combine cycling with rail travel. The toolkit, developed by the Association of Train Operating Companies (ATOC), provides guidance on cycle and rail integration for train operating companies.
Queensland Cycle Notes (Australia)
23rd Aug 2012
This series of Cycle Notes, by Transport and Main Roads (TMR) in Queensland is designed to assist planners and engineers provide for cycling in their local area.
Bicycle Parking Stations (International)
03rd Jul 2012
Across the world, public transport providers have recognised the need for secure bicycle parking at train and bus stations and interchanges. This list of projects provides some brief case studies of the types of facilities developed in Asia, Europe and the Americas. It will be added to over time.
Collection of Cycle Concepts 2012 (Denmark)
11th May 2012
The first edition of Collection of Cycle Concepts was published in 2000 and enjoyed a wide circulation. This second edition, Collection of Cycle Concepts 2012, updates the field, featuring new challenges and the latest knowledge. Collection of Cycle Concepts 2012 is not intended to be a summary of Danish road standards, but to provide inspiration and motivation for creating more and safer bicycle traffic – in Denmark as well as the rest of the world. It is published in English.
Nørreport Station: Rethinking and Doubling Bicycle Parking (EU)
30th Mar 2012
Every day, more than 250,000 people pass through Nørreport Station, Denmark's busiest train station. Improving the conditions for cyclists and pedestrians has been a must for the architects responsible for major rennovations at the station. Bikes will be placed in well-defined and slightly-lowered areas called “bicycle beds”, which will help create a clear and calm urban space. The new designs will more than double bike parking places from 900 to 1900.
Zahnradbahn Bicycle Wagon (EU)
09th Mar 2012
The light rail Zahnradbahn in Stuttgart, Germany includes a wagon for transporting bicycles.
Innovative Cycling Facilities for Interchanges (EU)
07th Feb 2012
This guideline provides an outline of the benefits and costs of installing cycling facilities at public transport interchanges. The document was published in 2010 by the EU project NICHES which aims to promote innovative measures for making urban transport more efficient and sustainable and to move them from their current 'niche' position into a mainstream urban transport application.
Much-Anticipated Marriage of Cycling and Transit (Canada)
06th Feb 2012
The marriage between cycling and transit presents opportunities for synergy by enlarging catchment areas of transit stations while drawing in new users to both of these green modes. However, because of the marginality of combining cycling and transit in North America, there is a shortage of reliable empirical studies in this area. This study addressed this gap and the report was published in the journal Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board in December 2011.
Cycling and Transperth Video (Australia)
13th Jan 2012
This video, produced in December 2011, demonstrates how Transperth encourages cycling. It provides information about access and restrictions on trains, buses and ferries and also shows parking options at stations.
Public transport ticketing incorporating folding bicycle hire (EU)
14th Sep 2011
The Swiss Region Alps railway and the Belgium bus company TEC are both providing an option to hire a folding bicycle with an annual ticket.
Becoming a Real Mobility Provider (International)
11th Jul 2011
In April 2011 the International Union of Public Transport published a position paper challenging its 3,000-plus member authorities in 92 countries, to become “real mobility providers,” and promoting the joint mobility of public transport in combination with other modes like cycling, car-sharing and taxis.
Bicycle-Rail Trip Analysis and Greenhouse Gas Emissions Reduction Focused Study (USA)
01st Jul 2011
In June 2011 the Los Angeles County Metropolitan Transportation Authority (Metro) published a Bicycle Rail Trip Analysis and Greenhouse Gas Emissions Study that looks at bicycle trips to and from Metro Rail. The study aims to establish the benefits of providing a system that accommodates bicyclists on trains and at train stations.
Bicycling Access and Egress to Transit: Informing the Possibilities (USA)
28th Apr 2011
This research report by Mineta Transportation Institute was published in April 2011. The report looks at cost effective ways of encouraging cyclists onto public transport. Intergrating bicycles with public transport increases the efficiency of both transport modes and brings a range of benefits to communites.
Forecasting the benefits from providing an interface between cycling and public transport (NZ)
27th Apr 2011
This research report was published in September 2010 by the New Zealand Transport Agency. The research examines the introduction of secure storage at public transport stations/stops (bike and ride) and racks on board buses, carriages or ferries (bike on board). Cycle-PT enhances and expands public transport patronage by catering to a wider array of users, both those for whom it is too far to walk to public transport as well as those who prefer to use a bicycle as part of their trip.
Houston METRO: Making Room for Bikes (USA)
25th Mar 2011
This case study from the US Pedestrian and Bicycle Information Center (PBIC) website examines how BikeHouston worked with METRO officials and other city staff to develop improved accessibility measures for bicycles on light rail.
The Case for Bike Racks on Buses (USA)
22nd Feb 2011
This video from StreetFilms was launched in February 2011. It examines the types of bicycle racks in use on public buses in major US cities and the experience of users, transport planners. Over the last ten years (or more) just about every major city in the U.S. has added bike-carrying capacity to their buses.
Evaluating Public Transportation Health Benefits (USA)
29th Oct 2010
This report, released in 2010 by the Victoria Transport Policy Institute, investigates ways that public transportation affects human health. The research indicates that people who live or work in communities with high quality public transportation tend to drive significantly less and rely more on alternative modes (walking, cycling and public transit) than they would in more automobile-oriented areas. This reduces traffic crashes and pollution emissions, increases physical fitness and mental health, and provides access to medical care and healthy food.
Integrating Bicycling and Public Transport in North America
21st Sep 2010
This paper by John Pucher was published in the Journal of Public Transportation in 2009. It provides an overview of bike-transit integration in large American and Canadian cities.
Integrating bicycles and bicycling infrastructure with transit (USA)
21st Sep 2010
This web resource from the Pedestrian and Bicycle Information Center provides an overview of the ways that bicycles and transit (both bus and rail) facilities and services can be connected and integrated for the mutual gain of both bicyclists and transit authorities.
Integration of Bicycles and Transit (USA and Canada)
21st Sep 2010
The purpose of this report, published by the Transportation Research Board in 2005 is to share information about how bicycles are integrated with public transportation by many different types of transit agencies in the United States and Canada. The information can be used to improve existing bicycle services and to assist other communities with developing new bicycle and transit services.
Provision and use of bicycle parking at Sydney region public transport interchanges (Australia)
21st Sep 2010
This report, published in 2009 by the NSW Premier’s Council for Active Living, provides the results of an audit of the provision and use of bicycle parking at Sydney region public transport interchanges.
Queensland Cycle Note: Cycling and Public Transport (Australia)
21st Sep 2010
This Cycle Note, publsihed in 2006, aims to raise awareness of the opportunities and benefits available to both bicycle riders and public transport operators by combining these two travel modes. It also delivers information on providing facilities at public transport hubs.
At the Frontiers of Cycling: Policy Innovations in the Netherlands, Denmark and Germany
20th Sep 2010
This article, published in World Transport Policy and Practice in 2007, provides detailed case studies of cycling in six cities: two in the Netherlands (Amsterdam and Groningen), two in Denmark (Copenhagen and Odense), and two in Germany (Berlin and Muenster). It includes information about travel trends, lanes, intersection treatments, bicycle parking, public transport integration, safety and bicycle promotion.