This Canadian study, published on 14th May 2013 (online) in the Journal Accident Analysis and prevention investigates cyclist injury occurrence and bicycle activity simultaneously using a Bayesian modeling approach. The presence of bus stops at intersections increases cyclist injury occurrence as well as the Presence of raised medians at intersections decreases cyclist injury occurrence. The authors propose a ranking approach for corridors in terms of injury risk criteria.
This study proposes a two-equation Bayesian modeling approach to simultaneously study cyclist injury occurrence and bicycle activity at signalized intersections as joint outcomes. This approach deals with the potential presence of endogeneity and unobserved heterogeneities and is used to identify factors associated with both cyclist injuries and volumes. Its application to identify high-risk corridors is also illustrated. Montreal, Quebec, Canada is the application environment, using an extensive inventory of a large sample of signalized intersections containing disaggregate motor-vehicle traffic volumes and bicycle flows, geometric design, traffic control and built environment characteristics in the vicinity of the intersections. Cyclist injury data for the period of 2003-2008 is used in this study. Manual bicycle counts were standardized using temporal and weather adjustment factors to obtain average annual daily volumes. Results confirm and quantify the effects of both bicycle and motor-vehicle flows on cyclist injury occurrence. Accordingly, more cyclists at an intersection translates into more cyclist injuries but lower injury rates due to the non-linear association between bicycle volume and injury occurrence. Furthermore, the results emphasize the importance of turning motor-vehicle movements.
The presence of bus stops and total crosswalk length increase cyclist injury occurrence whereas the presence of a raised median has the opposite effect. Bicycle activity through intersections was found to increase as employment, number of metro stations, land use mix, area of commercial land use type, length of bicycle facilities and the presence of schools within 50 to 800 metres of the intersection increase. Intersections with three approaches are expected to have fewer cyclists than those with four. Using Bayesian analysis, expected injury frequency and injury rates were estimated for each intersection and used to rank corridors. Corridors with high bicycle volumes, located mainly in the central neighbourhoods of Montreal, have lower risk of injury. These results may reflect the “safety in numbers” hypothesis or cyclist preference toward safer intersections and corridors. Despite these corridors having a lower individual risk, they are nevertheless associated with a greater number of injuries.
Available after 14 May 2013
This study published in the Medical Journal of Australia on the 13 May 2013, reports on the relationship between helmet use and head injury severity. The data was taken from hospitals in metropolitan sydney and involved a retrospective cohort of both pedal cyclists and motorcyclists. It found that patients identified with severe head injury, inhospital costs (AUD) were around three times higher in non-helmeted patients (median, $72 000) compared with helmeted patients (median, $24 000).
Michael M Dinh, Kate Curtis and Rebecca Ivers
Medical Journal of Australia
The U.S. National Traffic Safety Highway Administration has released a fact sheet that details the numbers of cyclists killed and injured in motor vehicle traffic crashes in 2011.
In 2011, 677 pedalcyclists were killed and an additional 48,000 were injured in motor vehicle traffic crashes. Pedalcyclist deaths accounted for 2 percent of all motor vehicle traffic fatalities (Table 1), and made up 2 percent of the people injured in traffic crashes during the year.
For the purpose of this Traffic Safety Fact Sheet, bicyclists and other cyclists include riders of two-wheel nonmotorized vehicles, tricycles, and unicycles powered solely by pedals. Throughout the remainder of this fact sheet the term pedalcyclist will be used to identify these cyclists The number of pedalcyclists killed in 2011 is 9 percent higher than the 623 pedalcyclists killed in 2010.
This case study "Shared (parking) space for bikes and cars in Copenhagen" was published in March 2013 and hosted at Eltis.org. It provides an innovative way to reallocate parking space between bicycles and cars using pop up bicycle parking.
The concept of "Flex Parking", where cars and bikes can both park.
In cities where space is in short supply, you need to think outside the box in order to make room for everyone. When it comes to a cycle city like Copenhagen, with its countless cyclists, you also need to allocate parking space for both cars and bikes - this is where "flex parking" comes in.
In order for flex parking to work, it is crucial that both user groups – cyclists and motorists – can access parking space at different times. The Ingrid Jespersen High School in Copenhagen was chosen as a test site for flex parking. The flex parking pilot was implemented in 2011 for 5 car parking spaces in front of the school.
Copenhagen and many other Danish cities are increasingly transforming car parking spaces into bicycle parking. Such a solution naturally limits the number of car parking spaces, but this is not necessarily negative. Rather than saying ‘either/or’, the City of Copenhagen, with the help of consultants from Atkins Danmark, decided to say ‘yes’ to both bikes and cars, and in turn developed the concept of “flex parking”.
As is the case at most educational institutions in Copenhagen many people cycle there, but the students are only in class for a limited period during the day. The Ingrid Jespersen High School is located in a residential area with many car owners. At night, the need for car parking in the area increases as people come home from work. Precisely this combination of different needs during the day and at night made it possible to use the same space twice.
In order to identify the area as flex parking, the asphalt of the original car parking space was marked with the flex parking logo and text. Signs indicating the time span allotted for bikes and cars respectively were set up. The new regulation is that cyclists can use the space between 7 AM and 5 PM, and car parking is allowed between 5 PM and 7 AM. In order to ensure that time limits would be respected, a pamphlet was distributed to all students and residents in the area so that both cyclists and motorists were familiar with the new initiative and knew how to use it.
The costs for development of the pilot project were 172,500 DKK (approx. EURO 23,125). In future, the implementation costs are foreseen to be approx. 30,000 DKK (approx. EURO 4,022).
The flex parking pilot received good feedback from students, their parents, and school personnel. Citizens in the area also showed positive attitudes towards flex parking. In conclusion, the project managed to solve the parking problems around the school.
The biggest challenge comes around the times when the area switches from car parking to bicycle parking and vice versa. On occasion, a car or bike has not been moved, but this has not caused any problems or accidents. Clearly, it is important to determine the time limits to match the specific needs of both user groups.Although flex parking may not be 100% ideal for cyclists, as there are no bike racks; nor 100% for motorists, who have to respect the time limit, a positive aspect is that both parties – not just one of them – get a parking option. Without flex parking there is only car parking or bicycle parking, with space lying empty for much of the day.
The project received much publicity in the press as it focused on a well-known and challenging problem for many Danish cities. With some small adjustments, the flex parking scheme has been continued at Ingrid Jespersen High School. Seven further schools have also expressed their interest for flex parking. The city of Copenhagen has identified 17 places where flex parking could be implemented in the future, including other schools and supermarkets.
The test case has shown that it is possible for bikes and cars to share space.
Produced by the Canadian Victoria Transport Policy Institute and authored by Todd Littman in April 2013, the 'Urban Mobility Report' (UMR) is a widely-cited U.S. study that estimates U.S. traffic congestion costs. This report critically examines the UMR’s assumptions and methods. The UMR evaluates urban transport system performance based only on vehicle traffic congestion; it ignores other modes and impacts.
The report tends to exaggerate congestion costs and roadway expansion benefits. It assumes that urban traffic will grow rapidly in the future, ignoring evidence that vehicle travel is peaking and travel demands are changing. The UMR ignores basic research principles: it fails to explain assumptions, document sources, incorporate independent peer review, or respond to criticisms. More comprehensive and multi-modal planning can identify truly optimal congestion reduction strategies.
The Urban Mobility Report (UMR) is a widely cited source of U.S. congestion cost estimates.
The UMR is produced by the Texas Transportation Institute with funding from the USDOT’s University Transportation Center Program and other government agencies.
The UMR’s costing methods do not reflect best current practices recommended by economists.
The UMR tends to overestimate congestion costs and roadway expansion benefits Congestion is a modest cost overall, increasing total travel time and fuel costs at most 2%.
The UMR ignores standard research principles such as providing context, explaining assumptions, citing sources, indicating potential sources of bias, and acknowledging legitimate criticisms.
SEGMENT is an Intelligent-Energy-Europe-funded project which tested consumer market segmentation techniques to persuade people to adopt more energy efficient forms of transport, such as walking, cycling, public transport and car sharing. The results show the potential and the limitations of segmentation, the difficulties in evaluation and the large learning potential within EU-projects.
The six SEGMENT demonstration cities aimed to maximise the impact of the campaigns through the use of two segmentation techniques. Firstly, by targeting people during so called “life change moments’, e.g. moving home, starting a new job, going to university. Secondly, by clustering these people with help of detailed surveys into relatively homogenous groups (in terms of attitude and travel behaviour) and then devising campaigns to effectively address the chosen target clusters (segments).
Life change moment campaigns
At life change moments, people have to change their mobility patterns, and are therefore more apt to consider other modes of transport. The six SEGMENT cities addressed a variety of such life change situations:
By clicking on each city name, you will be taken to Eltis case studies for an in depth description.
A cluster analysis of a ‘before’ survey led to segmentation into 8 target groups, ranging from for example “Devoted Drivers” (almost impossible to change) to “Car Free Choosers” (not owning a car and happy with it). Click here to view the analysis example from London. Segmentation can help make campaigns more effective. It can also address very specific target groups, for example people considering buying a car – in that case with the aim to MAINTAIN their current sustainable travel behaviour.
Resource overview on SEGMENT website
This paper published in the Journal Accident Analysis & Prevention online April 3rd, proposes a new conceptual framework for road safety and mobility comprising factors for risk and exposure resulting from travel behaviour. The model helps to identify potential effects of measures and policies on both exposure and risk. this paper also uses the framework to link research on cycling (safety) to land use and infrastructure.
Scientific literature lacks a model which combines exposure to risk, risk, and the relationship between them. This paper presents a conceptual road safety framework comprising mutually interacting factors for exposure to risk resulting from travel behaviour (volumes, modal split, and distribution of traffic over time and space) and for risk (crash and injury risk).
The framework's three determinants for travel behaviour are: locations of activities; resistances (generalized transport costs); needs, opportunities, and abilities. Crash and injury risks are modelled by the three ‘safety pillars’: infrastructure, road users and the vehicles they use.
Creating a link in the framework between risk and exposure is important because of the ‘non-linear relationship’ between them, i.e. risk tends to decrease as exposure increases. Furthermore, ‘perceived’ risk (a type of travel resistance) plays a role in mode choice, i.e. the perception that a certain type of vehicle is unsafe can be a deterrent to its use. This paper uses theories to explain how the elements in the model interact.
Cycling is an area where governments typically have goals for both mobility and safety. To exemplify application of the model, the paper uses the framework to link research on cycling (safety) to land use and infrastructure. The model's value lies in its ability to identify potential consequences of measures and policies for both exposure and risk. This is important from a scientific perspective and for policy makers who often have objectives for both mobility and safety.
Fig. 1. Conceptual framework for road safety, including exposure and risk (Sections describing the theories are referred to in parenthesis).
P. Schepers, M. Hagenzieker,R. Methorst, B. van Wee & F. Wegman
Available online 3 April 2013
Lack of physical activity could cause as many as 36,815 premature deaths in England each year, according to statistics released today by the South West Public Health Observatory (SWPHO) and charity Sustrans.
The statistics have been produced to help local authorities estimate how much they could reduce death and illness by promoting physical activity.
They show that current levels of physical activity among people aged 40-79 are low across England and that major health gains could be made if they increased.
New statistics released by Sustrans (UK) show that a lack of physical activity causes more than 36,000 deaths in England each year.
It has been estimated that if 100% of the population aged 40-79, did recommended levels of physical activity, each year there would be:
12,061 fewer emergency hospital admissions for coronary heart disease
6,735 fewer cases of breast cancer
4,719 fewer cases of colorectal cancer
294,730 fewer people living with type 2 diabetes
The Government currently recommends that adults undertake two and a half hours of moderate activity per week.
A study published by the Lancet in March 2013 found physical inactivity to be one of the top risk factors for death and disability in the UK, alongside smoking, hypertension, obesity and alcohol.
The ‘Cycling and Women Survey’ is the third annual survey conducted by the Heart Foundation and The Cycling Promotion Fund. The 2013 survey builds on the previous two surveys, ‘Riding a bike for transport’ (2011) and ‘Active travel to school’ (2012).
Riding a Bike
Overall, 60% of women reported they would likely to cycle more than they currently do. More than three quarters of women with 78% of those who currently cycle and more than 50% of women who hadn’t cycled in the past six months would like to cycle more than they do.
Attitudes and Perceptions
More than half of women surveyed stated riding a bike is seen as acceptable by their friends, with younger women under the age of 40 and those who currently ride more likely to agree their friends see it as acceptable to ride.
Barriers and Enablers
There was not one clear stand out reason that women believe prevents them (or other women) from cycling:
Download Report PDF (380kb)
Victorian Transport Statistics Portal provides transport statistics and related data. It has recently been updated to include cycling data to assist with the implementation and monitoring of the Victorian Cycling Strategy 'Cycling into the Future 2013-23'.
To access the cycling data tables go to http://www1.transport.vic.gov.au/VTSP/homepage.html and select the desired 'geography type' (State Regions in this case); select the area you are interested in; then select 'Cycling strategy' and press go.
In the drop down menu you can then select different data sets, such as:
You can also use the 'data table and graph' and 'map' tabs to get information on several areas at once and get customised information.
The 2011–12 Australian Bureau of Statistics Survey of Participation in Sport and Physical Recreation (4177.0) was conducted during the 12-months between July 2011 to June 2012, and collected information about the participation of people aged 15 years and over. The survey included sports, such as football or netball, which are usually organised by a club or association, and other sport and physical recreation activities which may or may not have been organised, such as cycling or walking for exercise.
Cycling was the fourth most popular activity for men and women in Australia.
This Wiki, titled Bicycle Facilities in Holland, provides a useful case study and provides insights into infrastructure planning and traffic engineering to support cycling in the Netherlands. This wiki was created by students at Northeastern University and Portland State University based on a summer program to investigate the urban environment of the Netherlands in 2011.
Example of Dutch contra-flow lane
TABLE OF CONTENTS
TheCityFix interviewed EMBARQ Health and Road safety expert, Claudia Adriazola-Steil, for World Health Day 2013.
Q1. How can we tackle the problem of rising obesity and physical inactivity through transport?
Lack of physical activity contributes to 3.2 million deaths annually, yet just 150 minutes of physical activity per week – about 20 minutes per day – can improve health and reduce the risk of disease. A study by the New York City Department of Health showed that those who take mass transport, cycle and walk as their main form of transport, receive more physical activity than those who rely on cars.
Physical activity can be promoted in neighborhoods through access to mass transport, bike and pedestrian paths, safe streets, connectivity between different transport modes, and a compact mix of housing, retail, parks and offices. One study showed that Barcelona’s Bicing bike sharing system saved an estimated 12 lives per year, mostly by getting people out of their cars and active on the streets.
Cyclists ride bike path along Ipanema Beach, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Photo by peskymonkey.
Q2. How can sustainable transport save lives?
Traffic accidents claim over 1.3 million lives around the globe each year. Research has shown that more distance traveled in individual vehicles leads to more traffic fatalities. Thus, mobility can be made safer by reducing car travel and moving people through safely designed mass transport, walking, and biking infrastructure. In Guadalajara, Mexico, for example, just one lane of their corridor with an advanced bus system called Macrobus transports 5,000 passengers per hour, in each direction. Normal traffic lanes can only accommodate 3,194 passengers per hour and were the locus of 726 crashes in 2011. The advanced bus system saw only 6 accidents in the same year.
At the core of its road safety work, EMBARQ has undertaken policy initiatives bridging high-level declarations to real change in cities. In 2010, as a member of the United Nations Road Safety Collaboration Group, EMBARQ worked to include mobility and sustainable transport in the Global Plan for the Decade of Action on Road Safety while working with national to local governments to put these international goals on the ground in countries. EMBARQ, together with the Association for Safe International Travel, Global Road Safety Partnership, Johns Hopkins School of Public Health, World Bank Global Road Safety Facility, and the World Health Organization, is part of the Bloomberg Global Road Safety Program, which works to improve road safety in the ten countries that make up almost 50 percent of all road traffic fatalities.
Q3. What do we need to do to make urban areas safer?
Thoughtful design that protects all road users — especially pedestrians and bicyclists — is crucial and can be achieved in ways ranging from improved crossings and intersections to traffic calming that reduces high impact crashes. Organizations like EMBARQ can work with local governments to implement urban codes supportive of mixed land use (less dependent on automobile use), street connectivity, and safe “street hierarchies,” which simply means designing streets that are appropriate for their use and context. High-speed arterial roads may be convenient and necessary for traffic patterns but should never be shared with pedestrians, cyclists, or implemented in areas with schools or hospitals, for example. It is a recipe for disaster. These areas require strict speed limits, more intersections, and safe and plentiful crossing opportunities. Long blocks without intersections naturally lead to longer distances traveled and more jay-walking mid-block.
Q4. How can safe transport contribute to the culture and identity of a city?
Striving to make more walkable and vibrant cities, EMBARQ Turkey has played a role in the pedestrianization of Istanbul’s Historic Peninsula, a United Nations World Heritage site which is home to thousands of residents, workers, and tourists. EMBARQ is now helping to plan and program the areas to ensure their vibrancy. In light of increasing air pollution, long commute times, and a desire to preserve its cultural and historic assets, the city of Arequipa, Peru — also classified a UNESCO World Heritage site — took the initiative to implement an advanced bus system and completely pedestrianize the first four blocks of Mercaderes, the main shopping street in downtown Arequipa.
In the slums, or favelas, of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, bicycling and walking are already rooted into the lifestyle and urban fabric, which creates enormous potential for the further leveraging of non-motorized solutions. In order to keep cycling a popular mode of transport, the favelas can concentrate on improving bike lanes and infrastructure and increasing connectivity of the bike infrastructure to the central city, other modes of mass transit, and popular locations like stores and malls.
Q5. Are there additional benefits of improving road safety through sustainable transport?
According to the World Health Organization, 1.3 million deaths occur each year from the effects of urban outdoor air pollution, with vehicles being one of the major emitters of deadly pollutants, such as fine particulate matter (PM2.5). This dirty air can irritate lungs, worsen asthma and emphysema, and increase the risk of heart attacks and premature deaths.
Shifting trips to mass transit, biking and walking, as well as improving vehicle and fuel technologies, can reduce exposure to air pollution and lengthen life span — thereby offering benefits for both human health and efforts to fight climate change.
Claudia Adriazola-Steil is Director of the Health & Road Safety Program at EMBARQ.
This article reproduced from Sustainable Cities Collective
This paper, published in the Journal of Transport Geography in March 2013, presents findings from in-depth interviews that sought to understand the circumstances and factors that influenced people to start, stop or significantly change their amount of cycling. The interviews were held with residents of 12 towns and cities in England that were experiencing an unprecedented scale of investment in cycling by UK standards.
This research collected interviewed people on travel behaviour life circumstances and asked participants the reasons for changes in cycling. Theory and preliminary analysis were used to develop a conceptual model which suggests that "turning points" in cycling behaviour are triggered by contextual change (life change events and changes to the external environment) and mediated by intrinsic motivations, facilitating conditions and personal history.
It is shown that life events, such as changes in employment, health, and residence etc prompt individuals to reconsider their existing behaviours. Changes to the external environment such as social, cultural, organisational, physical and policy/economic factors which constrain or support cycling had an impact on the individuals behaviour.
The individuals life change events and changes to the external environment were mediated by three main influences. These included personal history (e.g. cycling as a child), intrinsic motivations (keeping fit, outdoor activity) and the existing facilitating conditions in the external environment (e.g. supportive employer, good cycle paths). However the types of life events that were relevant varied over the age span of participants.
This research suggested that there is a turning point trajectory which can assist those promoting active travel and cycling to take advantage of the life events, as identified in the research as opportunities to promote cycling.
A fun experiment to visualise how Sydney cyclists ride to work on a particular morning. This is part of a larger project to provide interactive maps and data to help understand the decision processes of cyclists when it comes to route selection for commuting.
Some cyclists aim for hills, others avoid them. Some cyclists like the shortest distance and others prefer prettier, less busy back roads to cycle to work on. Each cyclist is different and each cyclist has his or her own preferences when it comes to route selection.
Falls in older people represent a significant health burden. One-third of adults aged over 65 years fall at least once each year. Two studies examines whether age-related declines in balance are moderated by bicycling and whether regular cycling can increase leg strength and improve balance.
Objectives. Study 1 examines whether age-related declines in balance are moderated by bicycling. Study 2 tests whether regular cycling can increase leg strength and improve balance.
Study 1: a cross-sectional survey of 43 adults aged 44–79 was conducted. Leg strength was measured, and Balance was measured using the choice stepping reaction time (CSRT) test (decision time and response time), leg strength and timed single leg standing.Study 2: 18 older adults aged 49–72 were recruited into a 12-week cycling program.
The same pre- and postmeasures as used in Study 1 were collected. Results. Study 1: participants who had cycled in the last month performed significantly better on measures of decision time and response time. Study 2: cycling at least one hour a week was associated with significant improvements in balance (decision time and response time) and timed single leg standing.
Conclusions. Cycling by healthy older adults appears promising for improving risk factors for falls.
Chris Rissel, Erin Passmore, Chloe Mason, and Dafna Merom.
Journal of Environmental and Public Health (Open Access)
Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 686412, 6 pages
This study, published in the journal Accident Analysis and Prevention investigated the behavioural, attitudinal and traffic factors contributing to red light infringement (running a red light) between February to May 2010. 2061 people who cycled completed the survey of which 37.3% reported that they had ridden through a red light.The study found that gender (males) age (older >29 yrs) and previous bicycle-vehicle crash can characterise groups of people cycling that may run red lights and discusses cyclist inclusive infrastructure and enforcement.
This study investigated the behavioural, attitudinal and traffic factors contributing to red light infringement by Australian cyclists using a national online survey. The survey was conducted from February to May 2010. In total, 2061 cyclists completed the survey and 37.3% reported that they had ridden through a signalised intersection during the red light phase.
The main predictive characteristics for infringement were: gender with males more likely to offend than females (OR: 1.54, CI: 1.22–1.94); age with older cyclists less likely to infringe compared to younger cyclists 18–29 years (30–49 yrs: OR: 0.71, CI: 0.52–0.96; 50+ yrs: OR: 0.51, CI: 0.35–0.74), and; crash involvement with cyclists more likely to infringe at red lights if they had not previously been involved in a bicycle–vehicle crash while riding (OR: 1.35; CI: 1.10–1.65).
The main reasons given for red light infringement were: to turn left (32.0%); because the inductive loop detector did not detect their bike (24.2%); when there was no other road users present (16.6%); at a pedestrian crossing (10.7%); and ‘Other’ (16.5%). A multinomial logistic regression model was constructed to examine the associations between cyclist characteristics and reasons for infringement.
Findings suggest that some cyclists are motivated to infringe by their perception that their behaviour is safe and that infrastructure factors were associated with infringement. Ways to manage this, potentially risky, behaviour including behaviour programmes, more cyclist-inclusive infrastructure and enforcement are discussed.
Marilyn Johnson, Judith Charlton, Jennifer Oxley, Stuart Newstead, "Why do cyclists infringe at red lights? An investigation of Australian cyclists’ reasons for red light infringement, Accident Analysis & Prevention", Volume 50, January 2013, Pages 840-847, ISSN 0001-4575, 10.1016/j.aap.2012.07.008. (http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S000145751200262X) Keywords: Cyclist; Red light infringement; Cyclist-inclusive; Infrastructure; Enforcement
GoPedelec is an EU cofinanced project between four municipalities, three non-profit-organizations and three private companies. The common goal of these partners is to raise awareness about pedelecs among citizens and decision makers. In October 2012 the project released a handbook detailing best practices for promoting pedelecs.
The GoPedelec project includes road-shows in five countries, giving citizens the opportunity to experience the feeling of electrically assisted cycling on a test track. For this purpose, a test track with a steep ramp will be installed in participating cities.
The project also includes local pilot projects related to:
The GoPedelec handbook offers an introduction to the subject of pedelecs and their potential for society and the economy, to their promotion as products, and to their problems and opportunities.
In March 2013 the European Cyclists' Federation (ECF) launched a cycling touring web platform, which provides a wealth of information about the EuroVelo routes, a long distance cycle network crisscrossing Europe. The web portal, provides information on 14 EuroVelo routes, which when completed will stretch over 70,000 kilometres. It is the first website to bring together all sources of information relating to the European cycle route network and cycling tourism in all European countries.
According to a 2012 study, it is estimated that there are a total of 22 million multi day cycle tourism trips every year in Europe*.
The project has been made possible thanks to the involvement of the National EuroVelo Coordination Centres and Coordinators and other partners in each country, which have gathered together the information at a national or regional level. It was also realised thanks to the financial support of the European Commission.
The ECF and the European Commission hope the site will continue the development of cycle tourism across the continent. It has been estimated that EuroVelo could attract 14.5 million overnight cyclists and generate €7 billion of total direct revenues when the network is completed.
This experiment quantified bicyclists’ estimates of the distance at which approaching drivers would first recognise them. Published in the journal, Accident Analysis & Prevention, in March 2013, found that bicyclists overestimated their conspicuity compared to previously collected recognition distances and underestimated the conspicuity benefits of retroreflective markings on their ankles and knees. Participants mistakenly judged that a fluorescent vest that did not include retroreflective material would enhance their night-time conspicuity.
This experiment quantified bicyclists’ estimates of the distance at which approaching drivers would first recognize them. Twenty five participants (including 13 bicyclists who rode at least once per week, and 12 who rode once per month or less) cycled in place on a closed-road circuit at night-time and indicated when they were confident that an approaching driver would first recognize that a bicyclist was present.
Participants wore black clothing alone or together with a fluorescent bicycling vest, a fluorescent bicycling vest with additional retroreflective tape, or the fluorescent retroreflective vest plus ankle and knee reflectors in a modified ‘biomotion’ configuration. The bicycle had a light mounted on the handlebars which was either static, flashing or off.
Participants judged that black clothing made them least visible, retroreflective strips on the legs in addition to a retroreflective vest made them most visible and that adding retroreflective materials to a fluorescent vest provides no conspicuity benefits.
Flashing bicycle lights were associated with higher conspicuity than static lights.
Additionally, occasional bicyclists judged themselves to be more visible than did frequent bicyclists.
Overall, bicyclists overestimated their conspicuity compared to previously collected recognition distances and underestimated the conspicuity benefits of retroreflective markings on their ankles and knees.
Participants mistakenly judged that a fluorescent vest that did not include retroreflective material would enhance their night-time conspicuity.
Bicyclists overestimate their own night-time conspicuity and underestimate the benefits of retroreflective markers on the moveable joints
Joanne M. Wood, Richard A. Tyrrell, Ralph Marszalek, Philippe Lacherez, Trent Carberry
Accident Analysis & Prevention, Available online 1 March 2013
Women Mean Business: The Economic Impact of Women Bicyclists
Though underrepresented in many aspects of the bicycle movement, there's growing evidence that women hold the purse strings when it comes to the future success of the bike industry. In preparation for the Women Mean Business theme for the National Women's Bicycling Forum (27th February 2013), the American Bike League explored the results of the American Bicyclist Study with authors Elliot Gluskin and Jay Townley to better understand the tremendous economic impact of women on the current, and more importantly, the future of the bicycle movement.
Click here for the presentation slides or watch the full recording below.
In February 2013 VTI, the Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, released a report that reviews effects of construction, maintenance, management, and costs for pedestrian and cyclist solutions on major roads, with or without central barrier. The report is written in Swedish with an English summary.
The aim of the study is to review various aspects regarding construction, maintenance, management and costs for pedestrian and cyclist solutions on major roads, with or without central barrier, where the permitted speed limit is between 70 and 90km/h.
Reconstructing an existing road with a central barrier is primarily considered as a road safety measure which reduces the risk of head on collisions. A negative effect of this type of design is that conditions for cyclists and pedestrians become difficult – especially when travelling along or across the road. There are no clear guidelines on how unprotected road users should be considered when reconstructing an existing conventional road to 2+1 road type.
The situation of pedestrians and cyclists is not considered to the desired level in the initial planning phase. This often results in the retro introduction of unsuitable measures. The cost of constructing pedestrian and cyclist solutions along major roads depends on geographical conditions and the standard of the solution selected. In addition, construction, operation and maintenance costs for pedestrian and cyclist solutions along and across major roads are not always reported separately. They are often included in the projects' total cost.
Increasing the ability to create attractive and cost-effective solutions requires further knowledge. This includes focus on how pedestrian and cyclist solutions should be handled in the initial planning process. It is also important to carry out systematic reviews of existing pedestrian and cyclist solutions along major roads. This will help to give a better idea of construction, operation and maintenance costs.
Pedestrians and cyclists on major roads | 3.1MB PDF
The paper, published in the journal Transport Policy in Febraury 2013, presents an analysis of school travel behaviour in the Netherlands and Flanders, two European countries with high bicycle use. The study analyses two aspects of school travel behaviour: home-to-school distances and modal choice. Both are analysed for primary and secondary school students.
Studies on school travelling frequently deal with active travelling that is considered important in preventing obesity. Most research has been done in low bicycle countries where walking is the main active mode.
The paper presents an analysis for the Netherlands and Flanders, two European countries with high bicycle use. The study analyses two aspects of school travel behaviour: home-to-school distances and modal choice. Both are analysed for primary and secondary school students.
A descriptive analysis learns that in Flanders trip lengths to primary schools are significantly larger than in the Netherlands and that the bicycle is more frequently used in the Netherlands. Analyses of influencing variables for both home-to-school distance and modal choice demonstrate that ‘hard’ factors that define the objective conditions for school choice (crucial for home-to-school distance) and modal choice are most influential.
They regard the locations of eligible schools and the qualities of the eligible modes. Just one other factor is significant in the explanation of home-to-school distances: car ownership. On the other hand, modal choice is influenced by several other socio-cultural factors, where age of the pupil, size of the household, and car ownership are most important. Most outcomes are in line with other studies.
The observed high bicycle use demonstrates that the bicycle has the potential to account for a large number of trips and can even be the dominant mode in school travelling.
School travel behaviour in the Netherlands and Flanders | Link to abstract
C.D. van Goeverden, E. de Boer
Transport Policy, Available online 21 February 2013
School travel behaviour explained; a comparative study of the Netherlands and Flanders | 325kb PDF
GOEVERDEN, Kees VAN; BOER, Enne DE
Paper presented to the 12th World Conference on Transport Research 2010
This research, published in the American Journal of Preventive Medicine in February 2013, provides details on the patterns of walking and cycling for active commuting in Curitiba, Vitoria and Recife, three state capitals in Brazil. It also aims to provide insights into the personal and perceived environmental factors associated with active transport. This study is amongst the first to examine active commuting in a large population sample within a low to middle income country.
A random-digit-dialling telephone survey was used amongst 6166 residents across the three capitals if they were aged over 18 years and lived in the same city for more than a year. The survey measured walking and cycling for transportation, sociodemogaphic and personal characteristics as well as perceived environment indicators such as safety perception, traffic conditions and sidewalks. The capitals not only varied in geographic location but had several key structural differences e.g. Curitiba has high traffic density while Recife has the highest population density, crime rate, unemployment rate and social inequality. However they also shared several likenesses including demographics (e.g. percentage of women), physical activity surroundings and policies.
Results showed the average prevalence of bicycling for transport was 13.4%; higher in Recife (16.0%; 95% CI 13.7, 18.4) compared to Curitiba (9.6%; 95% CI 7.8, 11.4) and Vitoria (8.8%; 95% CI 7.34, 10.1). Over one in four participants walked on a regular basis for transport with rates again being slightly higher in Recife (27.4%) compared to Curitiba (23.9%) and Vitoria (23.8%). The results indicated cycling and walking are associated with personal and socio-economic factors such as gender, educational attainment and socio-economic status. Higher education levels were negatively associated with walking and cycling whereas being younger and male had a positive association with cycling. There was no strong link associated with perceived environmental factors and walking and cycling.
This study was amongst the first to examine active commuting in a large population sample within a low to middle income country. Compared to previous studies conducted in Europe the cycling for transportation rates in Brazil are approximately a third of what is seen in countries such as Belgium, Germany and Austria. Given the finding that active commuting is associated strongly with personal and socio-economic factors, such as gender, education level and socio-economic status, future active commuting interventions may benefit from targeting lower income population groups.
Bicycling and Walking for Transportation in Three Brazilian Cities | Link to Abstract
Rodrigo S. Reis PhD, Adriano A.F. Hino MSc, Diana C. Parra MPH, Pedro C. Hallal PhD, Ross C. Brownson, PhD
American Journal of Preventive Medicine
Volume 44, Issue 2 , Pages e9-e17, February 2013
This research report was published online in the journal Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour in February 2013. The study examines the effect of built environment characteristics, trip characteristics and season on cycling trip satisfaction. It groups respondents into “cyclist types” based on a cluster analysis of motivations for cycling and their alternate (winter) mode, and explores how these personal characteristics moderate the relationship between built environment, trip characteristics and expressed trip satisfaction.
Despite increasing interest and focus on cycling planning and infrastructure, many research and policy frameworks overlook two important aspects of cycling: motivations and trip satisfaction. While many studies have found that cyclists are more satisfied with their commute than other mode users, few have explored why.
We hypothesize that different types of cyclists—defined by their reasons for cycling and seasonal mode patterns—will derive different levels of satisfaction from cycling.Therefore, this study attempts to:
This is accomplished using a university-wide travel survey administered in winter 2011, in which commuters to McGill University were asked to report their last trip to McGill.
If the person uses a different mode during the fall, he was asked to report it as well. Individuals were also asked to report their level of satisfaction with these trips.
Surprisingly, the expected relationship between distance, slope, and objectively measured elements of the built environment and trip satisfaction was not found.
Similar to previous research, cyclists are found to be more satisfied with their commute than other mode users.
Year-round cyclists are less satisfied with their travel than those who only cycle in good weather, while “Cycling Enthusiasts” are significantly more satisfied than most cyclists motivated by convenience.
This work emphasizes the need to look beyond the built environment and trip characteristics to better understand cyclist trip satisfaction.
Uniquely satisfied: Exploring cyclist satisfaction | Link to abstract
Devon Paige Willis, Kevin Manaugh, Ahmed El-Geneidy
Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour, Volume 18, May 2013, Pages 136–147
Uniquely satisfied: Exploring cyclist satisfaction | Link to full text 660Kb PDF
This article, published in the International Journal of Sustainable Transportation in 2012, concludes that women are less likely to feel safe on a bike than men — particularly in an area with lots of car traffic. The study looked at the on campus commute behavior of about 2,000 people, from faculty to undergrads. It recommends that adding off-road bike paths or improving bike lanes on general roads will make riding more appealing to women.
This article brings two emerging research areas together: gender differences in travel behavior and travel patterns on college campuses; with a focus on bicycling.
Detailed analysis and choice model estimations present the significant effects of gender, travel times, and personal attitudes on the decision to bike.
Although men and women experience similar environmental opportunities and constraints, their perceptions in terms of safety and feasibility of alternative transportation modes differ.
The models indicate women are more sensitive to being close to bicycle trails and paths. Results reveal different policy and infrastructure changes may be required to encourage more women to bicycle.
Bicycling Choice and Gender Case Study: The Ohio State University | Link to article abstract
Gulsah Akar PhD, Nicholas Fischer & Mi Namgung
International Journal of Sustainable Transportation
Volume 7, Issue 5, 2013
An Explanation for the Gender Gap in Biking | Link to a related news item in Atlantic Cities by Eric Jaffe
This research paper, published in the journal Sports in January 2013, examines the reported rates of cycling in five population surveys of cycling. The paper proposes that different question styles most likely explain the substantial discrepancies between the estimates of cycling participation. Some differences are to be expected due to sampling variability, question differences, and regional variation in cycling.
Planning and evaluating cycling programs at a national or state level requires accurate measures of cycling participation. However, recent reports of cycling participation have produced very different estimates.
This paper examines the reported rates of cycling in five recent population surveys of cycling. Three surveys (one national and two from Sydney) asking respondents when they last rode a bicycle generated cycling participation (cycled in the past year) estimates of 29.7%, 34.1% and 28.9%.Two other national surveys which asked participants to recall (unprompted) any physical activity done for exercise, recreation or sport in the previous 12 months, estimated cycling in the past year as 11.1% and 6.5%.
While unprompted recall of cycling as a type of physical activity generates lower estimates of cycling participation than specific recall questions, both assessment approaches produced similar patterns of cycling by age and sex with both approaches indicating fewer women and older adults cycling.
The different question styles most likely explain the substantial discrepancies between the estimates of cycling participation. Some differences are to be expected due to sampling variability, question differences, and regional variation in cycling.
Assessing Cycling Participation in Australia | web link to full text
Chris Rissel, Cameron Munro and Adrian Bauman
Sports 2013, Volume 1, Issue 1
In January 2013, the UK Government published new guidelines to help local authorities implement 20mph speed limits and zones. At the same time the government published an online toolkit that will enable local councils to calculate the potential costs and benefits of implementing new speed limits.
This UK guidance is to be used for setting all local speed limits on single and dual carriageway roads in both urban and rural areas.
This guidance should also be used as the basis for assessments of local speed limits, for developing route management strategies and for developing the speed management strategies which can be included in Local Transport Plans.
Traffic authorities are asked to keep their speed limits under review with changing circumstances, and to consider the introduction of more 20 mph limits and zones, over time, in urban areas and built-up village streets that are primarily residential, to ensure greater safety for pedestrians and cyclists.
Different road users perceive risks and appropriate speeds differently, and drivers and riders of motor vehicles often do not have the same perception of the hazards of speed as do people on foot, on bicycles or on horseback. Fear of traffic can affect peoples’ quality of life and the needs of vulnerable road users must be fully taken into account in order to further encourage these modes of travel and improve their safety. Speed management strategies should seek to protect local community life.
UK speed limit appraisal tool user guidance | Link to UK Government website where you can download a guideline document and excel spreadsheet.
This reserach, published in the journal Accident Analysis & Prevention in January 2013, examined the impact of on-road bicycle facilities on crash risk. The results suggest that intersections with an on-road bicycle facility are more protective against crashes than those without, that bicycle-specific pavement markings are more protective against crashes than bicycle signage and that increased street width increases the risk of a bicycle-motor vehicle crash.
An average of 611 deaths and over 47,000 bicyclists are injured in traffic-related crashes in the United States each year. Efforts to increase bicycle safety are needed to reduce and prevent injuries and fatalities, especially as trends indicate that ridership is increasing rapidly. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of bicycle-specific roadway facilities (e.g., signage and bicycle lanes) in reducing bicycle crashes.
We conducted a case site-control site study of 147 bicycle crash-sites identified from the Iowa Department of Transportation crash database from 2007 to 2010 and 147 matched non-crash sites. Control sites were randomly selected from intersections matched to case sites on neighborhood (census block group) and road classification (arterial, feeder, collector, etc.). We examined crash risk by any on-road bicycle facility present and by facility type (pavement markings--bicycle lanes and shared lane arrows, bicycle-specific signage, and the combination of markings and signage), controlling for bicycle volume, motor vehicle volume, street width, sidewalks, and traffic controls.
A total of 11.6% of case sites and 15.0% of controls had an on-road bicycle facility. Case intersections had higher bicycle volume (3.52 vs. 3.34 per 30 min) and motor vehicle volume (248.77 vs. 205.76 per 30 min) than controls. Our results are suggestive that the presence of an on-road bicycle facility decreases crash risk by as much as 60% with a bicycle lane or shared lane arrow (OR = 0.40, 95% CI = 0.09–1.82) and 38% with bicycle-specific signage (OR = 0.62, 95% CI = 0.15–2.58).
Investments in bicycle-specific pavement markings and signage have been shown to be beneficial to traffic flow, and our results suggest that they may also reduce the number of bicycle-motor vehicle crashes and subsequent injuries and fatalities. As a relatively low-cost traffic feature, community considerations for further implementation of these facilities are justified.
On-road bicycle facilities and bicycle crashes in Iowa, 2007–2010
Cara Hamann, Corinne Peek-Asa
Accident Analysis & Prevention, Available online 18 January 2013
The TNT Express demonstration project aims to increase the efficiency of operations for TNT's central Brussels parcel deliveries. The project is one of seven innovative urban freight deomstration projects to receive funding from the three year STRAIGHTSOL project. The project is in the process of developing a mobile depot and uses a fleet of electric tricycles to deliver packages in the the last mile.
STRAIGHTSOL is supporting the development of a set of innovative field demonstrations showcasing improved urban-interurban freight operations in Europe.
As in most larger European cities, deliveries in the heart of Brussels are slowed down by traffic congestion. This makes it expensive for TNT Express to keep their inner-city deliveries (and pick-ups) reliable and fast.
TNT identified the use of electric vehicles (green) or tricycles (green and not hindered by congestion) as solutions to these problems. The weakness of these solutions is the cost factor:
The objective of TNT Express and the STRAIGHTSOL demonstration is to implement a cost efficient and emission free operation.
This report describes a before and after study of the application of shared lane markings for cyclists (“sharrows”) to three relatively slow speed streets in the inner suburbs of Melbourne. Sharrows appear to have a significant effect on cyclist lane positioning on roads where it is feasible for cyclists to ‘claim the lane’. The report, prepared for VicRoads by CDM Research, was published in February 2013.
Sharrows appear to have a significant effect on cyclist lane positioning on roads where it is feasible for cyclists to ‘claim the lane’. This may increase cyclist safety at locations where there is a significant risk of car dooring collisions or conflict from right-angled movements (particularly at roundabouts).
While the evidence is not yet definitive, the report recommends that:
The types of sites where sharrows will best be used will only be learnt from trials and evaluations. Indeed, this study has illustrated that sharrows can be effective at some sites (Scotchmer Street, Ewing Street) but entirely ineffective at others (Wingrove Street).
Good sites are likely to include:
Given these caveats the report's view is that sharrows can form part of the toolbox of engineering treatments to improve conditions for cycling, but that like all treatments their use needs tobe considered within the context of the road environment to which they may be applied.
The report (3MB PDF) can be downloaded from the link below.
This white paper, published in January 2013 by the Pedestrian and Bicycle Information Center, examines the potential of Health Impact Assessments (HIA) to help transport agencies make more informed decisionsin their planning processes. HIA is a systematic, flexible approach that uses data, research, and stakeholder input to assess the health effects of policies or projects.
Transport agencies are responsible for ensuring safe access to travel options, including walking and bicycling, for people of all ages and abilities. For a number of reasons, including chronic disease rates and changing demographics, there is growing interest across the USA to better explore the links between health and transportation.
New approaches are emerging that can assist transportat agencies during the transportation planning process to make more informed decisions. One such approach involves the use of Health Impact Assessments (HIA), which can improve decision-making and protect and enhance health and health equity.
HIA is a systematic, flexible approach that uses data, research, andstakeholder input to assess the health effects of policies or projects. HIAs allow planners and other professionals to consider whether to adopt plans, as well as how and where to prioritise projects.
The assessment can help improve planning and policy development by making recommendations to reduce risk and promote healthy decisions. The challenge ahead is to incorporate health into the decision-making process, and to increase the capacity o fplanners and engineers to work with health professionals to conduct HIAs.
Key strengths of an HIA:
In January 2013 VicRoads switched on a new trial technology at the intersection of Nepean Highway and McDonald Street, Mordialloc which aims to improve the safety of cyclists. The new bike detection and cyclist activated warning signage is expected to increase driver awareness of cyclists as they exit a busy intersection.
A key element of the $310,000 trial works includes the installation of special detector loops, which are expected to improve safety for cyclists at the busy intersection.
The new loops have the ability to differentiate between cars and cyclists in a shared traffic lane and this technology has been successfully used overseas.
The loops are linked to a flashing warning sign facing McDonald Street traffic which is activated by cyclists on the Nepean Highway.
The new bike detection and cyclist activated warning signage is expected to increase driver awareness of cyclists as they exit McDonald Street.
In the five year period from January 2005 and December 2009 there were nine casualty crashes at this intersection, four of these involved vehicles exiting McDonald Street, failing to give way and colliding with southbound cyclists on Nepean Highway.
The works have been funded through the Safer Roads Infrastructure Program (SRIP) which targets roads identified as needing safety improvements. The funding, provided by the Transport Accident Commission (TAC), is part of a 10-year commitment of $650 million.
The attachment below links to a Channel 9 news report on the launch of the trial broadcast on 2 February 2013.
This research reviewed the way organisational travel plans (OTPs) are assessed. OTPs aim to address health and sustainability goals in transport. Evidence for their effectiveness is lacking. The researchers recommend that OTP implementation needs to occur alongside robustly-designed epidemiologic studies. The research was published in the journal Transport Policy in January 2013.
Population dependence on car use has adverse health consequences including road traffic injury, physical inactivity, air pollution and social severance. Widespread car dependence also entrenches lifestyles that require unsustainable levels of energy use. Most transport policies explicitly include goals for public health and sustainability. Transport interventions can therefore be seen as complex public health programmes, and assessing their outcomes against health and sustainability goals is vital. Using organisational travel plans (OTPs) as an example, we demonstrate how best practice epidemiological systematic reviews can be used to assess the existing evidence to inform transport policy. Such a synthesis of the evidence for OTPs has not been undertaken previously.
We undertook a rigorous systematic review in accordance with a peer reviewed protocol to assess the effects of OTPs on individual and population health. We defined OTPs as travel behaviour change programmes conducted in a workplace or education setting. We included published and unpublished randomised controlled trials and controlled before and after studies, where the measured outcomes included change in travel mode or health.
17 studies were included. One study directly measured health outcomes, and all studies measured change in travel mode. The overall methodological validity of studies was poor. The highest quality studies reported mixed effects on travel mode in the school setting. An isolated randomised controlled trial in a workplace suggests that reductions in car use are possible by people already contemplating or preparing for change to active travel.
Despite widespread implementation, there is insufficient evidence to determine the effectiveness of organisational travel plans for improving health or changing travel mode. Given the current lack of evidence, new OTP programmes should be implemented in the context of robustly-designed research studies, accounting for potential adverse effects such as child pedestrian injury. Cochrane systematic review methods used in partnerships between public health and transport planners can help achieve transport policy goals.
Organisational travel plans for improving health (Full text)
Hosking J, Macmillan A, Connor J, Bullen C, Ameratunga S.
Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2010, Issue 3. Art. No.: CD005575. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD005575.pub3.
This paper, published in December 2012, provides an overview of the results of a survey of 20 current and planned North American bikesharing systems. The purpose of the survey was to collect basic information about the systems, and the current status and details about programs that attempt to lower access barriers to bikesharing experienced by low-income communities, and minority groups under-represented in bicycling.
In recent years, bikesharing systems have spread throughout North America. There are a numberof theorized benefits to use of bikesharing, such as mode shift from automotive travel, and lowering household travel expenses.
While there has been rapid growth in systems, and apparent success in attracting riders, there is concern that bikesharing may not be reaching residents of low-income communities, or members of socioeconomic groups disproportionately underrepresented in bicycling.
To help bridge this gap, this paper investigates how bikesharingsystems are pursuing programs to lower access barriers for these groups.
This paper provides an overview of the results of a survey of 20 current and planned North American bikesharing systems. The purpose of this survey was to collect basic information about the systems, and the current status and details about programs that attempt to lower access barriers to bikesharing experienced by low-income communities, and minority groups underrepresented in bicycling.
Responses are summarized by category, with certain notable examples of bikesharing system programs highlighted. All categories of programs t olower access barriers described in this paper have multiple bikesharing systems pursuing them. Additionally, an analysis of characteristics of sampled bikesharing systems finds only one significant negative correlation (nonprofit agency status) with the average number of programs bikesharing systems pursue to reduce access barriers.
A number of research proposals are offered to provide more detailed study of the extent of access barriers to bikesharing systems, more details on individual bikesharing system experiences with programs to lower access barriers, and a need to repeat an overview of the stateof the practice after several large North American bikesharing systems deploy.
Bike sharing systems push to reach underrepresented groups | Article by the researcher in the Greater Greater Wasgington Blog
This project examined the circumstances surrounding crash involvement for a group of 61 bicycle riders involved in a collision with a motorised vehicle who were admitted to the Royal Adelaide Hospital between January 1 2008 and December 31 2010. Medical records, police crash data, and forensic data related to mandatory testing for alcohol and drugs were collected for the research. The report was published by the University of Adelaide's Centre for Automotive Safety in January 2013.
Crashes involving pedal cyclists in South Australia have steadily increased over the past ten years. In 2001 pedal cycle crashes constituted around 12% of all traffic crashes resulting in hospital admission, increasing to 17.4% in 2010 (SA Heath and SA Police unpublished data sources).
There have been several suggestions why the increase has occurred including a renewed interest in cycling and an increased awareness of the health and environmental benefits. In response to the demonstrated increase in crashes there is a need to identify those contributing factors that may place this vulnerable road user group at increased risk.
This project explores the circumstances surrounding crash involvement for a group of 61 bicycle riders involved in a collision with a motorised vehicle who were admitted to the Royal Adelaide Hospital over the period between January 1 2008 and December 31 2010. Data collected and matched during the study included medical records data generated during hospitalisation, police data related to the crash and Forensic Science data related to mandatory testing for alcohol and drugs. This data was combined with information gathered during voluntary participation in interviews with the cyclists involved following informed consent.
Cyclists involved in crashes were generally found to be experienced road users who undertook roadcycling activities on a regular basis. On average cyclists self reported that their road cycling exposureinvolved close to 10,000 kilometres per annum. Male cyclists between the ages of 36 and 55 years were found to be the group most frequently involved in crashes involving a motorised vehicle. Vehicle drivers undertaking a turning manoeuvre posed the biggest threat to cyclists who were generally travelling straight on a carriageway. Those drivers undertaking a right turn manoeuvre posed the greatest threat, particularly those turning across multiple traffic lanes and in peak hour traffic conditions. Young drivers were seen as the group of drivers most likely to be involved in these types of crashes.
Download the full report from the link below.
The research report was published by the University of Adelaide's Centre for Automotive Safety in January 2013. The research sought to determine the level of conspicuity of commuting cyclists in the morning and afternoon in Adelaide's CBD. The researchers found that while 38% of observed riders were visible from the front, only 18% were visible from the back, somewhat due to the use of backpacks.
This research sought to determine the level of conspicuity of South Australian commuting cyclists.
Roadside observations were undertaken at four sites around the Adelaide CBD with two sites each covering the morning (8-9:30 am) and afternoon (4-6 pm) peak cycling commuting periods. A total of 715 cyclists (78% male) were observed, the majority of whom (59%) were estimated to be aged 30-59 years.
The general level of front and rear conspicuity amongst cyclists observed commuting to and from the Adelaide CBD is concerning: 38% of cyclists were observed to have high frontal conspicuity; a small minority (8%) of cyclists were observed wearing high visibility vests. High rear conspicuity was much less common with 18% of cyclists observed to have high rear conspicuity. Over half (57%) of all cyclists observed to have high frontal conspicuity had obscured rear conspicuity, predominantly due to the use of a backpack.
Further analysis of conspicuity via binary logistic regression indicated that the type of clothing worn by cyclists predicted high conspicuity (front and rear) and high visibility vest use, while age also predicted the use of a high visibility vest, and sex was also found to predict the level of rear conspicuity, including obscured rear conspicuity.
These findings suggest that conspicuity may be associated with the individual characteristics of cyclists and the characteristics of different cyclist groups but further research is necessary to investigate this hypothesis.
Several areas for future research addressing cyclist safety are suggested but there is a need to investigate the role of conspicuity and other cyclist characteristics in cyclist crashes, and to investigate factors contributing to crashes in which the cyclist and other vehicle are travelling in the same direction.
While there is a risk that increased conspicuity may lead cyclists to become overconfident in drivers’ ability to detect them, the findings of this study indicate that improving the general level of conspicuity among South Australian cyclists could yield some safety benefits.
Download the full report from the link below.
Wheels for Wellbeing provides access to adapted cycles and skills training to people with a disability. Based in south London, the program provides access to hand cycles, adapted tandems, trikes and four wheelers. Their training is run in an off-road environment. The organisation also lobbies for bicycle lanes and parking designs to cater for the size of bicycles used by people with a disability.
In December 2012 the City of Sydney adopted a new Development Control Plan (DCP). The Plan contains provisions for managing the transport and parking needs of the city so that the environmental and economic impacts of private car use can be managed. The provisions also encourage walking, cycling, public transport and carsharing. A detailed table provides bicycle parking rates for different development types.
The City of Sydney Development Control Plan provides controls which guide development in order to:
(a) encourage development to respond to its context and is compatible with the existing built environment and public domain;
(b) recognise and reinforce the distinctive characteristics of the City of Sydney’s neighbourhoods and centres;
(c) build upon the detailed objectives and controls under Sydney Local Environment Plan 2012;
(d) protect and enhance the public domain;
(e) achieve the objectives of the City’s Sustainable Sydney 2030 Strategy;
(f) encourage design that maintains and enhances the character and heritage significance of heritage items and heritage conservation areas; and
(g) encourage ecologically sustainable development and reduce the impacts of development on the environment.
Section 3: General Provisions establishes the general guiding principles for development, including public domain, sustainability, heritage, design excellence, tree management, transport and parking, late night trading and signage. All development proposals except for development of, or alterations and additions to single dwellings, terraces and dual occupancies must comply with all relevant provisions within this Section.
3.11 Transport and Parking of Section 3 contains provisions for managing the transport and parking needs of the city so that the environmental and economic impacts of private car use can be managed. The provisions also encourage walking, cycling, public transport and carsharing.
Sydney Development Control Plan 2012 | Link to website
Section 3: General Provisions | 1.5MB PDF
In December 2012 the U.S. Federal Highway Administration released a report presenting methods that can be used to measure the safety of places, including intersections, road segments, and parking lots, when considering the effect on pedestrians and bicycle riders in an urban area. This methodology has the potential to fill a long-standing technical need for a commonly accepted measure of pedestrian and bicyclist exposure, thereby assisting in evaluating the effectiveness of pedestrian/bicyclist safety programs.
Currently, there is no commonly accepted or adopted measure of pedestrian and bicyclist exposure. This report presents a methodology for measuring a region’s pedestrian and bicyclist exposure, which is defined as 100 million pedestrian/bicyclist mi (161 million pedestrian/bicyclist km) of roadway (or other motor vehicleshared facility) traveled.
A method for implementing the exposure measure is described for various sharedfacility types that are characteristic to the urban environment of Washington, DC. These facilities include three types of intersections (signalized, stop-controlled (all-way), and partially stop-controlled) as well as midblock road segments, driveways, alleys, parking lots, parking garages, school areas, and areas with playing/dashing/working in the roadway.
A pilot study demonstrated the feasibility of the method at seven sites in Washington,DC, in 2006. In 2007, the methodology was implemented on a larger scale to estimate the annual pedestrian and bicyclist exposure in Washington, DC, which was 0.80 hundred million mi (1.29 hundred million km) for pedestrian exposure and 0.37 hundred million mi (0.59 hundred million km) for bicyclist exposure.
As a result o fsimplifications in the present data aggregation technique, these particular exposure values are overestimated. However, procedural changes are suggested to correct this issue. Within the constraints of this study, both the feasibility and scalability of the methodology were successfully demonstrated for a relatively large urban environment. The results indicate that the methodology has the potential to be used to collect exposure data that are not currently readily available to the pedestrian and bicycle safety community.
Although further refinement and validation are still needed, the methodology provides a possible initial foundation to develop a national unit of exposure for pedestrians and bicyclists.
In December 2012 the European Transport Safety Council released a report detailing best practices for facilitating cycling on roadways in a variety of European Union cities. It investigates policy, infrastructure, vehicle design and road user behaviour interventions and makes a series of recommendations to the EU and its members states.
The report notes that there are many benefits that can be gained if the rate of cycling is increased, particularly in terms of public health, reducing pollution and traffic congestion. The report argues that that the safety of cyclists can be improved and that cycling in itself is not an unsafe mode of travel. The examples presented demonstrate that with minimal investment, the benefits of cycling can be reaped, not only at the individual, but also at the societal level.
The report recommends that the EU
In December 2012 the NZ Transport Agency published a report evaluating the on-site operation of the C-roundabout design at a site in Auckland, New Zealand. The primary aim of the C-roundabout is to improve the safety of cyclists at multi-lane roundabouts and make multi-lane roundabouts more cyclist-friendly. The concept of the design is to decrease vehicle speeds through the roundabout to around 30 km/hr by increasing the deflection of the roundabout, and to reduce the widths of approach lanes and circulating lanes so that cyclists are required to travel in the centre of the lanes, like other vehicles.
The C-roundabout (cyclist roundabout) is a new multi-lane roundabout design (developed as part of a 2006 Land Transport NZ research project Improved multi-lane roundabout designs for cyclists) that aims to improve the safety of cyclists at multi-lane roundabouts and make multi-lane roundabouts more cyclist-friendly.
A C-roundabout was installed at the Palomino Dr/Sturges Rd intersection in Auckland and was evaluated between 2008 and 2011 in terms of its safety, capacity, and the opinions of cyclists, pedestrians and car drivers.
The C-roundabout successfully reduced vehicle speeds to 30km/hr, which is close to the speed of cyclists. This made the roundabout safer for cyclists, as well as for other road users.
The installation of the C-roundabout at this uncongested site had little impact on capacity.
It drew positive feedback from cyclists and pedestrians, but about half of the car drivers were not in favour of it. This could be expected as they may prefer a wider roundabout than the narrow C-roundabout.
Another site (Margan Ave/Hutchinson Ave) was also reviewed and involved changing two approaches from wide single lanes to two narrow lanes, without altering the kerbs and with no reduction in design speed.
The evaluation showed the capacity of a single-lane roundabout can be improved (almost doubled) at very low cost. However, the safety of the roundabout had decreased and a reduction in design speed was recommended to address this.
In December 2012 the American President’s Council on Fitness, Sports and Nutrition released an interim report on the nation’s physical activity guidelines. The report identifies interventions that can help increase physical activity in youth across a variety of settings. The report recognises that changes involving the built environment are promising and merit implementation even as the evidence continues to evolve.
Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans Mid-course Report: Strategies to Increase Physical Activity Among Youth is intended to identify interventions that can help increase physical activity in youth across a variety of settings. A subcommittee, of the PCFSN comprised of experts in physical activity was convened to examine the evidence and deliver their findings in the Mid-course Report. The subcommittee focused on physical activity in general and did not examine specific types of activity, such as muscle- or bone-strengthening physical activities. The subcommittee also did not consider efforts to reduce sedentary time or screen time. The primary audiences for the report are policy makers, health care and public health professionals, and leaders in the settings covered in the report.
Recognizing that many settings have potential for increasing physical activity among youth, the subcommittee focused on five settings in which physical activity interventions for youth have been studied and evaluated: schools, preschools and childcare facilities, community, family and home, and primary care.
Key findings are that:
In relation to changes involving the built environment, the report says:
The built environment comprises all aspects of the human-made environment, including cities, neighborhoods, buildings, roads, trails, and even water and energy infrastructure. Changes to this setting are important because they offer the potential to increase activity for all youth, not only those who elect to participate in specific programs or activities. Shifting the overall social and physical environment toward increased activity is one key strategy to address individuals’ tendency to compensate for increasing physical activity in one setting by decreasing it in another setting.
Multiple national, state, and local sectors play an important role in promoting physical activity, including sectors such as transportation, urban planning, and public safety, whose primary mission is not physical activity promotion. What has yet to be tested is the added value of including these sectors in comprehensive community interventions for youth physical activity.
Evidence is suggestive that modifying aspects of the built environment can increase physical activity among youth, particularly:
Evidence also suggests that changes in the following increases activity in children:
In November 2012 consultants SKM finalised a report for the QLD Department of Transport and Main Roads which examined the effectiveness of treatments on narrow bridges to improve the safety of bicycle riders. The project tested the use of ‘Watch for Bicycles’ signs, ‘No Overtaking on Bridge’ signs, and Bicycle Awareness Zone (BAZ) pavement symbols. The findings recommend changes to the Australian guidelines relating to narrow bridge treatments for cyclists.
Providing for cyclists on narrow bridges is difficult given the often limited road widths available, which will often preclude the provision of dedicated bicycle lanes or paths. Furthermore, there are unlikely to be viable alternative routes where a bridge is present, due to the topographical constraints. The infrastructure options are then restricted to the use of signs and lane markings to encourage the desired cyclist and motorist behaviours. In this study three types of treatments were tested sequentially:
Measurements of overtaking clearances, motorist behaviours, vehicle speeds and cyclist perceptions were obtained for the baseline untreated case and each of these treated conditions on two bridges near Bli Bli on the Sunshine Coast (Bli Bli Bridge and Eudlo Creek Bridge, both on David Low Way).
The results from the trials were as follows:
While the positive short term changes are both significant and meaningful it is not altogether clear that they would be sustained over the longer term. As such, there would be merit in a further evaluation several months after the treatment was installed.
Given these results, and experience elsewhere with similar treatments, the report recommends the following guidelines for narrow bridge treatments for cyclists:
The full report (3.05MB PDF) can be downloaded from the link below.
This research, published in the journal Youth Studies Australia in November 2012, examines the perceptions and attitudes toward cycling of young people who were experiencing or at risk of homelessness in central and south-western Sydney. The benefits of cycling for physical activity, personal transport, independence and social inclusion were recognised. Barriers to regular cycling included compliance with mandatory helmet legislation; a lack of cycling skills and experience; a paucity of cycling infrastructure and reliance on cars for personal transport; and access to affordable bicycles and equipment.
Participation in sporting or recreational programs can be unattainable for many disadvantaged young people. Encouraging regular cycling is an important public health strategy to increase participation in physical activity and expand personal transport options for marginalised youth.
Perceptions and attitudes toward cycling were explored in eight focus groups, involving 47 young people who were experiencing or at risk of homelessness in central and south-western Sydney, Australia.
The findings suggest that some homeless young people in Sydney are motivated to cycle for recreation, exercise and transport. Cycling was seen as a cost-effective transportoption and a means to move away from the isolation of homelessness toward a greater level of independence, freedom and social inclusion. The health, weight management and psychosocial benefits of cycling were also recognised.
All participants viewed mandatory helmet laws as a deterrent to regular cycling. There was considerable variation between participants in regard to the barriers to and facilitators of cycling, based upon their current cycling behaviour and previous experience. Personal factors such as skill levels and confidence were seen as barriers for infrequent riders but as enablers for regular riders. For infrequent riders, cars were seen as the ideal transport option, as well as a symbol of status and success. Infrastructure barriers in the built and planned environment were also identified as barriers to regular cycling, particularly by inexperienced riders.
The researchers found a comprehensive multi-strategic approach that engages marginalised young people is required toimprove access and enable increased participation in cycling activities.
‘It’s good to have wheels!’: Perceptions of cycling among homeless young people in Sydney, Australia | 112Kb PDF
Youth Studies Australia VOLUME 31 NUMBER 4 2012
In December 2012, Roads and Maritime Services released the NSW Annual Statistical Statement detailing the Road Traffic Crashes in NSW in 2011. The report contains crash statistics for the year ended 31 December 2011. It includes information about fatalities, injuries and crash types. In 2011, 10 bicycle riders were killed and 992 were injured in NSW.
The report notes that it is recognised that a substantial proportion of non-fatal pedal cycle crashes are not reported to police. As the NSW Police Force is the only source of crash notification used in this statement, statistics relating to pedal cycle crashes may not accurately reflect the situation.
Of the bicycle riders killed in NSW in 2011, all were male and aged over 25. One third were aged 40-49 and one third were aged 70 and over.
Of the bicycle riders injured, 83% were male and 17% were female.
Road Traffic Crashes in NSW 2011 | 781KB PDF
In December 2012 New Zealand's Ministry for Transport published Cyclist Crash Facts 2012. The report contains cyclist crash statistics for the year ended 31 December 2011. It includes information about fatalities, injuries and crash types.
New Zealand research suggests that if the number of individuals in New Zealand who cycle increases,the risk profile of cyclists may improve due to a ‘safety in numbers’ effect. It is also likely that, if cycling numbers increase, this will increase demand for cycle-friendly road infrastructure.
In 2011, nine cyclists died, 167 were seriously injured and 616 suffered minor injuries in police-reported crashes on New Zealand roads. This is about 6 percent of the total number of casualties from police reported crashes involving motor vehicles in 2011.
Cyclist Crash Facts 2012 |120KB PDF
In July 2012, the US National Highway Traffic Safety Administration released a fact sheet detailing cyclist fatalities and injury statitstics for 2010. In 2010, 618 pedalcyclists were killed and an additional 52,000 were injured in motor vehicle traffic crashes in the USA. Pedalcyclist deaths accounted for 2 percent of all USA motor vehicle traffic fatalities, and made up 2 percent of all the people injured in traffic crashes during the year.
The number of pedalcyclist fatalities in 2010 is 2 percent lower than the 628 pedalcyclists fatalities reported in 2009. The majority of pedalcyclist fatalities in 2010 occurred in urban areas (72%) and at non-intersections (67%).
In 2010, the average age of pedalcyclists killed in traffic crashes was 42. During the past 10 years, there has been a steady increase in the average age of both pedalcyclists killed and injured
This Spanish research, published in the journal Accident Analysis & Prevention in March 2013, explored the factors related with the risk of crashes involving cyclists. The research concludes that for bicycle riders being aged from 10 to 19 years, being male, consuming alcohol or drug and not wearing a helmet use were associated with a higher risk of crash. Bicycles with brake defects and bicycles ridden by two occupants were at higher risk.
A quasi-induced exposure approach was applied to the Spanish Register of Traffic Crashes to identify driver- and vehicle-related factors associated with the risk of causing a road crash involving a cyclist in Spain from 1993 to 2009.
The researchers analysed 19,007 collisions between a bicycle and another vehicle in which only one of the drivers committed an infraction, and 13,540 records that included the group of non-infractor cyclists in the above collisions plus cyclists involved in single-bicycle crashes.
Adjusted odds ratios were calculated for being responsible for each type of crash for each factor considered.
Age from 10 to 19 years, male sex, alcohol or drug consumption and non-helmet use were cyclist-related variables associated with a higher risk of crash, whereas cycling more than 1 h increased only the risk of single crashes.
Bicycles with brake defects and ridden by two occupants were also at higher risk of involvement in a crash, whereas light defects were associated only with collisions with another vehicle.
For drivers of the other vehicle, age more than 60 years, alcohol, not using safety devices and nonprofessional drivers were at higher risk. The risk of colliding with a bicycle was higher for mopeds than for passenger cars.
Risk factors for causing road crashes involving cyclists: An application of a quasi-induced exposure method
Virginia Martínez-Ruiz, Pablo Lardelli-Claret, Eladio Jiménez-Mejías, Carmen Amezcua-Prieto, José Juan Jiménez-Moleón, Juan de Dios Luna del Castillo
Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 51, March 2013, Pages 228–237
This paper, published in the journal Transport Policy in January 2013, reviews methodologies that can be applied in sustainability assessment in transportation planning to shed light on the procedures being used to incorporate sustainability more effectively in the planning process. Using data from the Atlanta Metropolitan Region, the study identifies performance measures based on sustainability issues and regional goals and evaluates proposed transportation and land use alternatives.
While the definition of a sustainable transportation system is varied, there is emerging consensus that transportation system sustainability should capture attributes of system effectiveness and system impacts on economic development, environmental integrity, and social quality of life. Sustainability assessment can be incorporated at the planning level in order to influence decision making, and support policies that affect regional sustainability.
This paper reviews methodologies that can be applied in sustainability assessment in transportation planning in order to shed light on the procedures being used to incorporate sustainability more effectively in the planning process. Using data from the Atlanta Metropolitan Region, the study identifies performance measures based on sustainability issues and regional goals and evaluates proposed transportation and land use alternatives.
The study evaluates and discusses several performance measures and aggregates them into indexes representing four parameters of sustainability: system effectiveness, environmental, economic, and social impacts, to enable visualization and assessment of tradeoffs and dominance for the competing alternatives.
The study is potentially useful to agencies interested in understanding the range of tools being used for sustainability assessment, expanding or refining their performance measures to capture sustainability in transportation planning, and using them in evaluating tradeoffs among competing alternatives as well as in identifying dominant alternatives.
Sustainability assessment at the transportation planning level: Performance measures and indexes
Christy Mihyeon Jeon, Adjo A. Amekudzi, Randall L. Guensler
Transport Policy, Volume 25, January 2013, Pages 10–21
The 2012 Survey of Children's Participation in Cultural and Leisure Activities, was conducted throughout Australia in April 2012 as a supplement to the Australian Bureau of Statistics' (ABS) monthly Labour Force Survey. The survey includes children aged 5-14 years and covers both sport cycling and recreational cycling. The number of children riding for sport and recreation has increased since the last survey in 2009.
Children's participation in more active recreational activities increased since the last survey in 2009, with the proportion of children skateboarding, rollerblading or riding a scooter rising from 49% to 54%, and the proportion of children bike riding increasing from 60% to 64%.
The tables of the results are provided in Excel spreadsheets which provide detailed information about the characteristics of children who ride bicycles in Australia including:
The spreadsheets can be downloaded from the ABS website here.
The ABS website has a written summary of the survey and information about past surveys.
This research, published in the Journal of Transport Geography in April 2013, compares the use of the car and bicycle for work, shopping and leisure trips. The key findings are that commuting distance and free workplace parking were strongly associated with use of the car for work trips, and car availability and lower levels of education were associated with car use for leisure, shopping and short-distanced commuting trips. The case of Cambridge shows that more policies could be adopted, particularly a reduction in free car parking, to increase cycling and reduce the use of the car, especially over short distances.
Encouraging people out of their cars and into other modes of transport, which has major advantages for health, the environment and urban development, has proved difficult. Greater understanding of the influences that lead people to use the car, particularly for shorter journeys, may help to achieve this.
This paper examines the predictors of car use compared with the bicycle to explore how it may be possible to persuade more people to use the bicycle instead of the car. Multivariable logistic regression was used to examine the socio-demographic, transport and health-related correlates of mode choice for work, shopping and leisure trips in Cambridge, a city with high levels of cycling by UK standards.
The key findings are that commuting distance and free workplace parking were strongly associated with use of the car for work trips, and car availability and lower levels of education were associated with car use for leisure, shopping and short-distanced commuting trips.
The case of Cambridge shows that more policies could be adopted, particularly a reduction in free car parking, to increase cycling and reduce the use of the car, especially over short distances.
The factors influencing car use in a cycle-friendly city: the case of Cambridge
Andrew Carse, Anna Goodman, Roger L. Mackett, Jenna Panter, David Ogilvie
Journal of Transport Geography, Volume 28, April 2013, Pages 67–74
In September 2012 the City of Amsterdam published a long term cycling plan which will create 38,000 new bicycle parking places and 15 kilometres of red asphalt bike lanes on the most dangerous roads. The City Council plans to invest 57 million euros in measures designed to benefit cyclists. The Long-term Cycle Plan 2012 - 2016 outlines the proposed projects and the city's future cycling policy.
Bike usage in Amsterdam has grown by more than 40% in the last 20 years, from 340,000 daily journeys by bicycle to 490,000 in 2008. And the numbers continue to rise. The amount of bicycle journeys to and from train stations is expected to rise by 25% by 2020. Collectively, Amsterdammers travel in the region of 2 million kilometres by bike every day. Investment in cycling facilities has lagged behind this explosive growth, resulting in overflowing bike racks and overly narrow bike paths on the primary routes in the city centre. The percentage of seriously-wounded traffic accident victims that are cyclists has also risen to 56% compared to 48% in 2000.
The Long-term Cycle Plan (Meerjarenplan Fiets) 2012 - 2016 aims to create:
The City has produced an English summary and factsheet about the plan. These documents and the full plan in Dutch can be downloaded from the link below.
In December 2012 CDM Research published a series of graphics showing the origin-destination flows for journeys to work by bicycle in Melbourne. The data is from the Australian Bureau of Statistics Census data from 2001, 2006 and 2011. The innovative method of data visualisation is information rich.
The charts visualise the flow of riders to and from 18 local government areas in Melbourne. The detailed data is best viewed at 150-200% of the PDF.
The graphic shows the dominance of the City of Melbourne as both an origin and destination for bicycle commuters.
It is worth noting that the Census provides a snapshot of just one day in August, the coldest and wettest time of the year in Melbourne.
In December 2012 the Chicago Department of Transport released their Streets for Cycling Plan 2020. The plan will guide the development of a citywide network of 150-250 miles of bikeways that will make bicycling a safe and easy option for all residents. Once built, the bikeways network will safely connect residents to their daily needs with a healthy, affordable and green form of transportation.
Chicago’s Streets for Cycling Plan 2020 provides a blueprint to implement Mayor Rahm Emanuel’s vision to make Chicago the best big city for bicycling in the United States.
The Plan identifies a 645-mile bike network of bikeways that will allow all Chicagoans, from eight years old to eighty and beyond, to feel safe and comfortable bicycling on city streets.
The Plan’s network was developed using three guiding principles:
An extensive public outreach process was conducted to develop the plan, including city-wide public meetings and community advisory groups.
Chicago Streets for Cycling Plan 2020 | 12.68MB PDF
www.chicagobikes.org | Link to City of Chicago Department of Transportation Bicycle Program website
This report published in October 2012 by the University of Dresden's Faculty of Transport and Science, was prepared for the European Greens and European Free Alliance. Car use is an important part of daily life in the EU and it clearly creates huge benefits for the users. Naturally there are also costs for car mobility: obvious costs but also less obvious ones, such as costs arising from noise and pollution. This study estimates the magnitude of these hidden costs of car mobility and the ways in which these costs are currently being financed.
The report is structured into five chapters:
This research report by the Norwegian Centre for Transport Research was published in November 2012. The study evaluated the effects of counter flow cycling in one way streets on the behaviour, comfort, perceptions of safety and ease of access of pedestrians, cyclists and car drivers. The study also considered the safety consequences of this measure.
As part of a policy to improve cycling conditions in Oslo, counter-flow cycling was permitted and cycle lanes were installed in both directions of two one-way streets. In both streets cycle lanes were implemented in both directions with signposts and special traffic signals for cyclists travelling against the normal traffic flow. The cycle lanes were marked with red asphalt and combined with advanced stop lines and “cycle boxes”.
The study evaluated the effects of this measure on travel behaviours, comfort, subjective safety and ease of access among pedestrians, cyclists and car drivers. In addition an important aim has been to consider the safety consequences of this measure.
Surveys were conducted before and after the implementation in 2011,comparing road users in the two trial streets with those in two control streets.
Results reveal that cyclists in the trial streets were satisfied with counter-flow cycling, cycled more in the streets and less on pavements, and felt more secure. Opinions among pedestrians and car drivers were mixed. Pedestrians felt slightly less secure after the implementation, but despite this were generally in favour of counter-flow cycle lanes in one-way streets. Car drivers were negative about the new cycle lanes in the one trial street where parking facilities had been removed, but opinions were mixed in the other trial street.
Video observations reveal that counter-flow cycling led to few traffic conflicts. Thus such a measure would not seem to be detrimental to road safety.
Counter-flow cycling Evaluation of counter-flow cycling in one-way streets in Oslo city centre | 225Kb PDF of English summary
In December 2012 the US Environmental Protection Agency released a report that informs developers, businesses, local governments, and other stakeholders about the economic advantages of smart growth development - development that is compact, walkable, and diverse. Walkable development frequently makes cycling appealing and conventient.
This report is the first in a series from EPA’s Smart Growth Program designed to inform developers, businesses, local government, and other groups about the benefits of smart growth development. Additional reports will build on this work, exploring how real estate developers and investors can overcome real and perceived barriers to benefit from infill opportunities, how decisions about where to locate will impact the bottom lines of businesses, and why smart growth strategies are good fiscal policy for local governments.
Smart growth development is compact and walkable and provides a diverse range of choices in land uses, building types, transportation, homes, workplace locations, and stores. Such development projects are attractive to private-sector interests because they can find a ready market and compete financially. They appeal to local governments because they can be the building blocks of a growing economy and high-quality, economically sustainable neighborhoods and communities while also helping to create a cleaner, healthier environment.
Some of the advantages for developers, communities, and local governments associated with smart growth include:
In December 2012 the US Federal Highway Administration published a new draft chapter of their Traffic Monitoring Guide. The new chapter provides basic guidance intended to improve the way non‐motorised traffic volumes are monitored. This edition of the Traffic Monitoring Guide will be the first to include information on monitoring pedestrians, bicyclists, and other non‐motorised road and trail users.
The new chapter in the US Federal Highway Administration's Traffic Monitoring Guide includes sections on:
Traffic Monitoring Guide for Non-Motorised Traffic | 3.31MB PDF (Draft Chapter 4 of the revised Traffic Monitoring Guide)
fhwatmgupdate.camsys.com | Link to the Traffic Monitoring Guide update website
This report, published by the Australian Institute of Health and Welfare in December 2012, provides summary data on hospitalised injury of children and young people (aged 0-17 years) in NSW from 1 July 2009 to 30 June 2010. Falls were the most commonly reported cause of hospitalised injury (39% of cases), transport injuries were also common (14%). For males, the majority of hospitalised transport injury cases occurred on a pedal cycle (37%) followed by a motorcycle (34%). In contrast, females were more likely to have been in a car (29%) or on an animal or animal-drawn vehicle (22%).
More than 23,000 children and young people (0-17) were hospitalised in 2009-10 as a result of an injury. Roughly equal numbers of boys and girls were hospitalised under the age of 5. There were more boys hospitalised than girls aged 5−14.
A total of 31 children died in hospital over this period as a result of injury, mainly transport- related.
The age-standardised injury rate of children and young people was just over 1,460 per 100,000 population. The rate of injury for males was 1,864 per 100,000 population and increased with age. In contrast, the rate of injury in females was 1,036 per 100,000. Similar rates were observed in the different age groups.
Falls were the most commonly reported cause of hospitalised injury (39% of cases). Transport injuries were also common (14%). The most frequent cause of hospitalised falls involved playground equipment.
Falls in the home were a frequent cause of injury for children aged 4 and under. Injury associated with burns, accidental poisoning by pharmaceuticals and drowning were also much more common in very young children. Transport injuries accounted for 20% of hospitalisations in young people aged 15-17. Pedal cycles were the most commonly reported cause of hospitalised transport injury in NSW children aged 0−14. Motorcycle rider injuries were more common in young people aged 15-17.
Significant declines in hospitalised injury since 1999 were seen in rates for poisoning by pharmaceuticals (average 6% decline per year) and poisoning by other substances (4% decline per year). Smaller but significant declines were also noted for drowning (3%), transport injuries (2%) and assault (2%).
Serious childhood community injury in NSW 2009-10 | Link publication on the AIHW website
Over 23,000 NSW kids hospitalised for injuries | Link to media release and announcement of advisory committee on childhood injury prevention
In 2012 Port Philip Council engaged the Australian Bicycle Council to undertake a Cycling Participation and Rider Perceptions survey of residents. This report outlines the survey findings and provides comparisons in participation with national and metropolitan Victoria data form the 2011 National Cycling Participation Survey.
The National Cycling Participation Survey (NCPS) was first undertaken in March 2011, and provided data on cycling participation at a national level. The survey design also allowed for estimates of participation for each state and territory, and the capital cities and non-capital areas within each state and territory. The survey did not have sufficient sample sizes to allow for disaggregation to local government level except where councils chose to have additional survey work undertaken. The survey provided baseline data against which to measure performance towards the National Cycling Strategy target of doubling cycling participation between 2011 and 2016.
The survey objective was to obtain accurate data on cycling participation rather than travel. Participation is defined as the number of individuals who have cycled for any journey or purpose and in any location over a specified time period. Travel is the number of cycling trips that occurred over that time period, and may include the distance travelled, purpose and so on. Participation is much easier to define, and for individuals to recall, than travel – it is reasonable to expect an individual would remember whether they had ridden a bicycle over the past week, month or year, but far less likely they would be able to accurately recall the number of trips they have made over that period.
The NCPS will occur biennially (March 2011, 2013 and 2015) as a means of monitoring performance towards the National Cycling Strategy target. In these years, and in intervening years, the survey will be offered to councils as a means of supporting their efforts to encourage cycling within their communities.
The cycling participation survey only provides objective data on cycling participation. At the request of the City of Port Phillip, the survey team developed an extension to the survey to provide a series of attitudinal indicators. These attitudinal indicators provide information on:
As these questions require some insight into cycling conditions only individuals who had ridden at least once in the past 12 months in Port Phillip were subject to these questions. Those that had not ridden at all in the past 12 months, or had only done so outside the municipality, were excluded from these questions. The barriers to cycling by non-cyclists to have been widely studied, well understood and sufficiently generic that they would not provide useful additional insight in Port Phillip.
The survey report can be downloaded using the link below. (1.8Mb PDF)
The US based website Bikestyle has published an extensive list of blogs written by women about riding bicycles. In December 2012 the list linked to 662 blogs and includes twitter handles and geographic location of the writers.
Images: Cycling in Heels, London, England
The blogs originate from the USA, Canada, Mexico, Brazil, Argentina, England, Ireland, Scotland, France, Belgium, Italy, Spain, Portugal, the Netherlands, Denmark, Germany, Poland, Hungary, Slovenia, Estonia, Ukraine, Russia, Turkey, Japan, China, Taiwan, Korea, the Phillipines, Indonesia Australia and New Zealand.
Topics include fashion, commuter cycling, touring, fitness, racing, products, maintenance, and advocacy.
This report presents descriptive data from the Australian Bureau of Statistics Census on cycling on the journey to work; this information was collected at the 2001, 2006 and 2011 Censuses by LGA and also stratified by regions, into: inner Sydney, outer Sydney and the Greater Metropolitan Region. The report was published by the University of Sydney in December 2012.
Between the 2001 and 2011 Census, the number of people cycling on their journey to work in the combined Sydney and Greater Metropolitan Region increased from 15,254 to 22,320, an increase of 7,000 people or 46 per cent.
The majority of this increase (38%) occurred between 2006 and 2011. The proportion of people cycling on their journey to work also increased by 25 per cent, from 0.85 per cent in 2001 to 1.06 per cent in 2011. While the 25 per cent increase is encouraging, 1.06 per cent is still extremely low compared with other modes of transport. It is worth noting that all of this increase occurred between 2006 and 2011, and nearly all in inner Sydney. Significant increases in inner Sydney have been offset by declines in the Greater Metropolitan Region.
Cycling to work in Sydney: analysis of journey-to-work Census data from 2001 and 2011 | 260KB PDF
Zander A, Rissel C & Bauman A.
Camperdown: Prevention Research Collaboration, The University of Sydney, December 2012.
More cyclists? That depends on where you live | Link to article about the research in The Conversation
This research, published in the journal Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice in January 2013, segments the bicycle commuting market into several submarkets by travelers’ attitudes. It presents an approach for attitude-based market segmentation analysis. It idenitfies six subsegments with distinct attitudes towards commuting travel and exaines the characteristics of each market segment. It discusses targetted policies to increase bicycling within each submarket.
The market segmentation analysis for bicycle commuting can help identify distinct bicycle market segments and develop specific policies or strategies for increasing the bicycle usage in each segment. This study aims to use the approach of attitudinal market segmentation for identifying the potential markets of bicycle commuting.
To achieve the research objective, the household survey is conducted to obtain the travelers’ attitudes towards their commuting travels. The factor analysis is used to explore the latent attitudes. The structural equation modeling (SEM) simultaneously estimates the correlations between the attitudinal factors. The K-means clustering is conducted to segment the bicycle commuting market into several submarkets. Finally, six segments of bicycle commuting market with distinct attitudes are identified by four dividing factors including the willingness to use bicycle, need for fixed schedule, desire for comfort, and environmental awareness. The attitudinal characteristics, socioeconomic features, and actual bicycle choices in each market segment are analyzed and compared. The policy implications that best serve the needs of each submarket are discussed to promote the bicycle commuting.
Bicycle commuting market analysis using attitudinal market segmentation approach | Link to abstract
Zhibin Li, Wei Wang, Chen Yang, David R. Ragland
Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, Volume 47, January 2013, Pages 56–68
Attitudinal Bicycle Commuting Market Segmentation in Nanjing, China: A Structural Equation Modeling Approach | Link to full text of similar draft paper 1.78MB PDF
In December 2012 the Victorian Government released its 10 year Cycling Strategy. Cycling into the Future 2013-23 will be supported by a series of Action Plans, which will be periodically updated as work is completed. The strategy includes a plan to spend more than $30 million on bicycle infrastructure in 2012-13.
Cycling into the Future 2013–23 identifies six directions that will build the Government's understanding of cycling and the types of trips Victorians make by bike, help to increase these trips in the future and encourage more people to consider cycling:
1. Build evidence – build a stronger evidencebase for the Victorian Government to makemore informed decisions
2. Enhance governance and streamlineprocesses – clarify accountability andimprove co-ordination, planning and delivery
3. Reduce safety risks – reduce conflicts andrisks to make cycling safer
4. Encourage cycling – help Victorians feelmore confident about cycling and makecycling more attractive
5. Grow the cycling economy – supportopportunities to grow and diversify Victoria’seconomy through cycling
6. Plan networks and prioritise investment– plan urban cycling networks to improveconnectivity and better target investment inurban networks, regional trails and specialistcycle sport infrastructure.
Cycling into the Future 2013–23 will be accompanied by a series of Action Plans. The first Action Plan will be for two years. The plans will set out priority actions for the short-term to deliver the strategy’s objectives.
Victorian Cycling Action Plan 2013 & 2014 | 540Kb PDF
Cycling Strategy fact sheet | 378 KB PDF
$18 million investment to crank up Darebin Creek Bike Trail | Media release
This report discusses reasons to implement complete streets and how they relates to other planning innovations. Complete streets can provide many direct and indirect benefits including improved accessibility for non-drivers, user savings and affordability, energy conservation and emission reductions, improved community livability, improved public fitness and health, and support for strategic development objectives such as urban redevelopment and reduced sprawl. The report was first published in December 2012 and was updated in March 2013 by the Victorian Transport Policy Institute.
Complete streets refers to roads designed to accommodate diverse modes, users and activities including walking, cycling, public transit, automobile, nearby businesses and residents.Such street design helps create more multi-modal transport systems and more livable communities.
This report discusses reasons to implement complete streets and how it relates to other planning innovations. Complete streets can provide many direct and indirect benefits including improved accessibility for non-drivers, user savings and affordability, energy conservation and emission reductions, improved community livability, improved public fitness and health, and support for strategic development objectives such as urban redevelopment and reduced sprawl. Net benefits depend on the latent demand for alternative modes and more compact development, and the degree that complete streets projects integrate with other planning reforms such as smart growth, New Urbanism and transportation demand management.
A typical complete street project redesigns roadways to include better sidewalks and crosswalks, pedestrian refuge islands (so pedestrians need only cross half the street at a time), bike lanes, and center turn lanes. It sometimes involves reducing traffic and parking lanes, traffic calming, and replacing traffic signals with roundabouts. This tends to reduce maximum traffic speeds but smoothes flow so total vehicle traffic volumes are not reduced.
This reflects a new planning paradigm which emphasizes accessibility and multi-modalism. Complete streets integrate with other planning innovations including sustainable development, smart growth, New Urbanism, context oriented planning, traffic calming and transportation demand management. It is the practical way that transport planners and engineers can help create more diverse transport systems and more livable communities.
The new planning paradigm recognizes that motor vehicle travel is seldom an end in itself; the ultimate goal of most transport activity is accessibility (people’s ability to reach desired services and activities) and that various factors affect accessibility including mobility, the quality of transport options, transport network connectivity and affordability, the geographic distribution of activities, and mobility substitutes such as telecommunications and delivery services. Conflicts often exist between different forms of access, for example, wider roads and increased vehicle traffic create barriers to non-motorized access (called the barrier effect), and locations that are most accessible by automobile are often difficult to access by other modes. Complete streets planning recognizes these trade-offs and so can optimize accessibility overall.
The old planning paradigm evaluates transport system performance based primarily on arterial traffic speeds and so favors wider roads with higher design speeds. The new paradigm recognizes that these features improve automobile access but reduce other forms of access by creating barriers to non-motorized travel and stimulating dispersed development. The new paradigm recognizes the important roles that walking, cycling and public transport play in an efficient and equitable transport system, and therefore supports transport planning to accommodate diverse modes and activities. The old paradigm does not completely ignore alternative modes, but often considers them a luxury to be accommodated where convenient, for example, if a wider sidewalk or bike lane can easily fit into available road rights-of-way and project budgets. Where conflicts exist between motorized and non-motorized access the old paradigm considers it acceptable to block pedestrian and bicycle access and require those modes to make significant detours. The new transport planning paradigm considers non-motorized access and safety essential design objectives. It reverses the planning hierarchy to favor non-motorized over non-motorized modes.
This study examines the links between consumer behavior and the mode of transportation used to access local destinations. The project examines the relationships between consumer expenditure and trip making behavior, including mode of travel and frequency of trips in the Portland metropolitan area. The draft report was published by the Oregon Transportation Research and Education Consortium in December 2012.
This research aims to merge the long history of scholarly work that examines the impacts of the built environment on non-work travel with the relatively new interest in consumer spending by mode of travel.
This empirical study of travel choices and consumer spending across 89 businesses in the Portland metropolitan area shows there are important differences between the amounts customers spend on average at various businesses by their mode of travel. However, these differences become less pronounced when we control for demographics of the customer and other attributes of the trip.
This study of consumer spending and travel choices has some compelling findings that suggest some key spending and frequency differences by mode of travel that will likely invigorate the discussion of the economic impacts of these modes.
Key findings are the following:
Other findings lend more insight into the relationship between consumer behavior and travel choices. For the non-work destinations studied, the automobile remains the dominant mode of travel. Patrons are largely arriving by private vehicle to most of the destinations in this study, particularly to grocery stores where larger quantities of goods tend to be purchased. But, high non-automobile mode shares and short travel distances exist in areas of concentrated urban activity.
In sum, this study provides some empirical evidence to answer the questions of business owners about how mode shifts might impact their market shares and revenues. More work is needed to better understand the implications of future changes and to provide a robust assessment of the returns on these investments and their economic impacts.
Examining Consumer Behavior and Travel Choices | Link to project website
Active travelers are competitive customers, research report indicates | Link to news article by Oregon Transportation Research and Education Consortium
Cyclists and Pedestrians Can End Up Spending More Each Month Than Drivers | Link to news artcle in Atlantic Cities
Researchers from University College London have found that cycling is safer than driving for young males, with 17 to 20 year old drivers facing almost five times greater risk per hour than cyclists of the same age. The research was published in the journal PLoS ONE in December 2012.
Official reports on modal risk have not chosen appropriate numerators and denominators to enable like-for-like comparisons. We report age- and sex-specific deaths and injury rates from equivalent incidents in England by travel mode, distance travelled and time spent travelling.
Hospital admissions and deaths in England 2007–2009 were obtained for relevant ICD-10 external codes for pedestrians, cyclists, and car/van drivers, by age-group and sex. Distance travelled by age-group, sex and mode in England (National Travel Survey 2007–2009 data) was converted to time spent travelling using mean trip speeds. Fatality rates were compared with age-specific Netherlands data.
All-age fatalities per million hours’ use (f/mhu) varied over the same factor-of-three range for both sexes (0.15–0.45 f/mhu by mode for men, 0.09–0.31 f/mhu for women). Risks were similar for men aged 21–49 y for all three modes and for female pedestrians and drivers aged 21–69 y. Most at risk were: males 17–20 y (1.3 f/mhu (95% CI 1.2–1.4)) for driving; males 70+ (2.2 f/mhu(1.6–3.0)) for cycling; and females 70+ (0.95 f/mhu (0.86–1.1)) for pedestrians. In general, fatality rates were substantially higher among males than females. Risks per hour for male drivers <30 y were similar or higher than for male cyclists; for males aged 17–20 y, the risk was higher for drivers (33/Bn km (30–36), 1.3 f/mhu (1.2–1.4)) than cyclists (20/Bn km (10–37), 0.24 f/mhu (0.12–0.45)) whether using distance or time. Similar age patterns occurred for cyclists and drivers in the Netherlands. Age-sex patterns for injuries resulting in hospital admission were similar for cyclists and pedestrians but lower for drivers.
When all relevant ICD-10 codes are used, fatalities by time spent travelling vary within similar ranges for walking, cycling and driving. Risks for drivers were highest in youth and fell with age, while for pedestrians and cyclists, risks increased with age. For the young, especially males, cycling is safer than driving.
Exposure-Based, ‘Like-for-Like’ Assessment of Road Safety by Travel Mode Using Routine Health Data | Full article available online
Mindell JS, Leslie D, Wardlaw M (2012), PLoS ONE 7(12): e50606. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0050606
Cycling safer than driving for young people | UCL Media Release
In November 2012 the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development’s Office of Sustainable Housing and Communities released its 2012 Accomplishments Report. The report highlights how the Department's grant recipients are working to support locally led collaborative efforts that are building stronger regional economies. Improving community livability and health, and providing transport choices are key themes.
Helping Communities Realize a More Prosperous Future provides an overview of projects, programs, and activities supported by U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development’s Office of Sustainable Housing and Communities. It is organised by five themes:
Helping Communities Realize a More Prosperous Future | 6.78MB PDF
In the 2012 European spring, the Danish City of Fredericia tested a new concept to encourage their citizens to ride more: a GPS-based bicycle relay race known as ‘Cykelstafetten’. 25 GPS units were given to 25 citizens who would then bike for one day, upload the number of biked kilometres to a campaign website, and hand over the GPS to someone in their network. The team whose GPS had covered the most kilometres and had changed hands the most times won a prize.
At the opening event, the 25 captains received a GPS, entered their team on the website, and went on a bike ride. The captains included city councillors, local business leaders, and the editor of the local paper. The website included an overview of all the teams and tracked their routes as well of the number of times the GPS had changed hands.
The campaign lasted for two months with 40 weekdays to bike in. Thus, ‘Cykelstafetten’ could potentially activate 1000 cyclists.
During the two-month campaign, 220 people went on at least one bike ride. Thirty-three percent of the respondents in the evaluation answered that they had biked ‘more’ or ‘much more’ during the campaign. The campaign didn’t reach its ambitious goal of activating 1000 cyclists; however, ‘Cykelstafetten’ did reach its other goal, namely to create a program for adults based on GPS technology.
1000 Yellow Cyclists | Case study, Danish Cycling Embassy
In 2012 the City of Aarhus, Denmark's second largest city, installed a Park and Bike Terminal that invites commuters to exchange the last part of their drive with a bike ride. The facility is located in about 7km from the city centre in Lystrup and provides parking for 100 bicycles and 60 cars. The project aims to increase the number of multi-modal trips by establishing a parking facility close to radial roads and cycle tracks.
Individuals can rent a secure bicycle locker in the Park and Ride for around DKK 400 (50 euro) a year.
There are facilites for larger companies that employ people from the surrounding areas and do not have car parking spaces for all their employees, to provide company bikes at the terminal and thereby offer their employees a healthy transport alternative.
A new cycle path from Lystrup to Aarhus was developed at the same time as the parking facility. The planners have focused on creating a fast and comfortable route that also offers a recreational experience on the bike ride, far from cars and noise.
Four more Park and Bike Terminals are planned within a 5-10 km radius of the city centre.
Denmark’s First Park and Bike Terminal | Case study, Danish Cycling Embassy
State of Australian Cities 2012 was published by the Department of Infrastructure and Transport in December 2012. The report brings together current research and data including available data from the 2011 Census of Population and Housing to present a comprehensive snapshot of Australian cities. Transport and active travel are featured.
This is the third in a series of annual Australian Government publications reporting on the progress of Australian cities towards the goals and objectives of the National Urban Policy. The previous two reports are State of Australian Cities 2010 and State of Australian Cities 2011.
State of Australian Cities 2012 follows the structure of the previous two editions. The report details changes in urban population and settlement and examines indicators relating to productivity, sustainability and liveability. The report concludes with a discussion of governance in Australia’s major cities and, for the first time, an evaluation of progress in implementing the National Urban Policy.
Chapter 5 on Liveability has a section on Active Travel. And each of the major city fact sheets has comparative infomation about the mode of journey to work.
State of Australian Cities 2012 | Link to the Department of Infrastructure and Transport web resource
This report, released by the U.S. Federal Highway Administration in November 2012, presents the potential safety benefits of wireless communication between roadway infrastructure and vehicles by identifying the magnitude, characteristics, and cost of crashes that would be targeted.
This report presents the potential safety benefits of wireless communication between the roadway infrastructure and vehicles, (i.e., vehicle-to-infrastructure (V2I) safety). Specifically, it identifies the magnitude, characteristics, and cost of crashes that would be targeted with currently proposed V2I for safety application areas including intersections, speed management, vulnerable road users, and other safety applications areas. It also identifies the magnitude, characteristics, and cost of the remaining crashes that are not targeted by currently proposed V2I safety applications.
The results of this study indicate that the applications are well conceived and can potentially treat large portions of U.S. crashes and crash costs. The characteristics of unaddressed crashes provide a starting point for identifying either new applications or modifications to current applications.
The report has been designed for US Federal, State, and local government agencies, research organizations, and private sector firms that research, develop, and deploy V2I technologies and safety applications.
This report, published by the World Road Association in November 2012, presents key findings of a literature review of best practices for road safety campaigns, and relate these to actual road safety campaign practices by road administrations and authorities of 14 countries who responded to a survey questionnaire.
The report covers the following key focus areas:
It shows how and why these issues should be sufficiently researched and understood before implemented by road authorities and administrations.
The full report can be downloaded for free, after establishing an account on the PIARC website
Best practices for road safety campaigns | Link to PIARC website
This paper, published by the NSW Motor Accidents Authority, provides an overview of car accidents involving pedestrians, highlighting the severity of most injuries sustained. This report is based largely on the MAA’s claims database as at March 2002. It aims to profile pedestrian claims in terms of incidence, cost, age, and injuries. In the first section pedestrian claims are compared with claims lodged by other road users including pedal cyclists. The remainder of the report focuses more closely on the pedestrian claims.
In comparison with other compulsory third party insurance claimants, pedestrians have a particularly high incidence of brain injury, concussion and limb fractures. Because of the severity of the injuries involved, pedestrian claims cost about twice as much as driver or passenger claims. Pedestrians account for about 11% of compulsory third party claims but almost 20% of claim costs. Cyclists account for 2% of compulsory third party claims and 3% of costs.
Download the report 'Profile of CTP claims involving pedestrians' by clicking on the link below | 188Kb PDF
This report, published by the Victoria Transport Policy Institute in September 2012, provides guidance on the use of indicators for sustainable and livable transportation planning. It defines sustainability and livability, discusses sustainable development and sustainable transport concepts, and how sustainability indicators can be applied in transport evaluation and planning. It describes factors to consider when selecting sustainable transportation indicators, identifies examples of indicators and indicator sets, and provides recommendations for selecting sustainable transport indicators for use in a particular situation.
There is growing interest in the concepts of sustainability, livability, sustainable development and sustainable transportation.
Sustainability generally refers to a balance of economic, social and environmental goals, including those that involve long-term, indirect and non-market impacts. Livability refers to the subset of sustainability goals that directly affect community members. Sustainability reflects the fundamental human desire to protect and improve our earth. It emphasizes the integrated nature of human activities and therefore the need for coordinated decisions among different sectors, groups and jurisdictions. Sustainability planning (also called comprehensive planning) expands the objectives, impacts and options considered in a planning process, which helps insure that individual, short-term decisions are consistent with strategic, long-term goals.
Sustainability and livability are generally evaluated using indicators, which are specific variables suitable for quantification (measurement). Such indicators are useful for identifying trends, predicting problems, setting targets, evaluating solutions and measuring progress. Which indicators are selected can significantly influence analysis results. A particular policy may seem beneficial and desirable if evaluated using one set of indicators but harmful and undesirable according to others. It is therefore important that people involved in sustainability planning understand the assumptions and perspectives of the performance indicators they apply.
This paper explores concepts related to the definition of sustainable and livable transportation and the selection of indicators suitable for policy analysis and planning. It discusses various definitions of sustainability, livability, and sustainable transport, describes the role of indicators for policy making and planning, discusses factors to consider when selecting indicators, identifies potential problems with conventional transport planning indicators, describes examples of indicators and indicator sets, and provides recommendations for selecting indicators for use in a particular situation.
This research published in the journal Environment International in November 2012, estimates the health risks and benefits of mode shifts from car to cycling and public transport in the metropolitan area of Barcelona, Spain. It found that around 66 lives would be saved if 40% of the trips now made by car were underatken by bicycle.
Estimate the health risks and benefits of mode shifts from car to cycling and public transport in the metropolitan area of Barcelona, Spain.
We conducted a health impact assessment (HIA), creating eight different scenarios on the replacement of short and long car trips, by public transport or/and bike. The primary outcome measure was all-cause mortalityand change in life expectancy related to two different assessments: A) the exposure of travellers to physical activity, air pollution to particulate matter b2.5 μm (PM2.5), and road traffic fatality; and B) the exposure of general population to PM2.5, modelling by Barcelona Air-Dispersion Model. The secondary outcome was a change in emissions of carbon dioxide.
The annual health impact of a shift of 40% of the car trips, starting and ending in Barcelona City, to cycling (n=141,690) would be for the travellers who shift modes 1.15 additional deaths from air pollution, 0.17 additional deaths from road traffic fatality and 67.46 deaths avoided from physical activity resulting in a total of 66.12 deaths avoided. Fewer deaths would be avoided annually if half of the replaced trips were shifted to public transport (43.76 deaths).
The annual health impact in the Barcelona City general population (n=1,630,494) of the 40% reduction in car trips would be 10.03 deaths avoided due to the reduction of 0.64% in exposure to PM2.5. The deaths (including travellers and general population) avoided in Barcelona City therefore would be 76.15 annually. Further health benefits would be obtained with a shift of 40% of the car trips from the Greater Barcelona Metropolitan which either start or end in Barcelona City to public transport (40.15 deaths avoided) or public transport and cycling (98.50 deaths avoided). The carbon dioxide reduction for shifting from car to other modes of transport (bike and public transport) in Barcelona metropolitan area was estimated to be 203,251 t/CO2 emissions per year.
Interventions to reduce car use and increase cycling and the use of public transport in metropolitan areas, like Barcelona, can produce health benefits for travellers and for the general population of the city. Also these interventions help to reduce green house gas emissions.
Replacing car trips by increasing bike and public transport in the greater Barcelona metropolitan area: A health impact assessment study | PDF of full article
D. Rojas-Rueda, A. de Nazelle, O. Teixidó, M.J. Nieuwenhuijsen
Environment International 49 (2012) 100–109
This study, reported in the journal Accident Analysis & Prevention, published in January 2013, reviewed 205 pedestrian and cyclist accidents with head injury or impact. Over half of head impacts were attributed to road rather than the striking vehicle. Most casualties with serious head injury were associated with striking vehicle.
The potential effectiveness of vehicle-based secondary safety systems for the protection of pedestrians and pedal cyclists is related to the proportion of cases where injury arises by contact with the road or ground rather than with the striking vehicle.
A detailed case review of 205 accidents from the UK On-the-Spot study involving vulnerable road users with head injuries or impacts indicated that contact with the road was responsible in 110 cases. The vehicle however was associated with a majority of more serious casualties: 31 (vehicle) compared with 26 (road) at AIS 2+ head injury level and 20 (vehicle) compared with 13 (road) at AIS 3+ level.
Further analysis using a multivariate classification model identified several factors that correlated with the source of injury, namely the type of interaction between the striking vehicle and vulnerable road user, the age of the vulnerable road user and the nature of injury.
Source of head injury for pedestrians and pedal cyclists: Striking vehicle or road? | Link to abstract
Alexandro Badea-Romero, James Lenard
Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 50, January 2013, Pages 1140–1150
This study, reported in the journal Accident Analysis & Prevention, published in January 2013, examined the association between the presence of pedestrian and bicycle plans to pedestrian and bicyclist nonfatal and fatal injuries from 1997 to 2009 among 553 North Carolina (NC) municipalities. The research found pedestrian plans were associated with decreased nonfatal/fatal injury rates but bicycle plans were not.
This study examined the association between the presence of pedestrian and bicycle plans to pedestrian and bicyclist nonfatal and fatal injuries from 1997 to 2009 among 553 North Carolina (NC) municipalities.
The study considered all municipal plans (n = 92; 49 pedestrian; 34 bicycle; and 9 combined plans featuring pedestrian and bicyclist components) published through 2009. Counts of pedestrian and bicyclist nonfatal and fatal injuries came from the NC Department of Transportation crash database, and the estimated number of pedestrian and bicycle trips per municipality in one year were used to calculate pedestrian and bicyclist nonfatal and fatal injury rates.
In the 13-year study period, pedestrian/combined municipality plans and bicycle/combined municipality plans were present for 189 (2.6%) and 238 (3.3%) municipality-years, respectively.
There were 11,795 nonfatal injuries, 9237 possible nonfatal injuries, and 1075 fatal injuries sustained by pedestrians in pedestrian–motor vehicle crashes. There were 4842 nonfatal injuries, 3666 possible nonfatal injuries, and 134 fatal injuries sustained by bicyclists in bicyclist–motor vehicle crashes.
Although not statistically significant, unadjusted nonfatal and fatal injury rates among pedestrians and bicyclists were lower in those municipality-years in which plans had been published that year or in a year prior, compared to municipality-years lacking a plan. Adjusted rate ratios (RR) indicated that pedestrian nonfatal and fatal injury rates decreased in municipality-years with publication of pedestrian/combined plans (nonfatal injury RR: 0.75, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.68, 0.82; fatal injury RR: 0.63, 95% CI: 0.46, 0.85). However, bicyclist nonfatal and fatal injury rates did not significantly change with publication of bicyclist/combined plans.
The research suggests that plan publication is associated with lower rates of nonfatal and fatal injury in pedestrians; this association was not observed for bicyclists. Further work must determine how the extent of implementation and quality of safety-related content within these plans affects changes in nonfatal and fatal injury rates.
Pedestrian and bicycle plans and the incidence of crash-related injuries | link to abstract
Zachary Y. Kerr, Daniel A. Rodriguez, Kelly R. Evenson, Semra A. Aytur
Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 50, January 2013, Pages 1252–1258
This research paper, published in the journal Transport Policy in November 2012, examines the effect of various motivators, barriers and policy related interventions (i.e., personal, social and physical–environmental factors) on bicycle commuting in Dares-Salaam, Tanzania.
The paper examines the effect of various motivators, barriers and policy related interventions (i.e., personal, social and physical–environmental factors) on bicycle commuting in Dares-Salaam, Tanzania.
The research shows that these factors have different effects on people depending on the stage of change of cycling behaviour these people are in. In particular, the effects vary among people in the early stages of change of cycling behaviour (pre-contemplation and contemplation) and those in the late stages of change (action and maintenance).
Importantly, results indicate that addressing physical barriers alone is likely to have little impact on encouraging bicycle commuting. More specifically, the research shows that perceived motivator variables (e.g. low bicycle price, quality of bicycle, cycling training, and direct cycling routes) are strongly associated with bicycle commuting.
Physical barriers including weather, absence of safe parking at home and at work, lack of bicycle paths and water showers at work places as well as personal barriers like social status, social (in)security and not feeling comfortable on a bicycle have the most negative influence on bicycle commuting. Policy related interventions like exemption of bicycle import tax, car congestion charges, and guarding bicycles at public places have a strong impact on bicycle use.
The study findings provide a clear understanding of the key influencing factors which can serve as an empirical basis for development of more effective targeted measures to encourage modal change.
► Individual perceptions play a key role in understanding bicycle commuting behavior. ► The stage of change model can be used to indicate the potential for modal change. ► The influence of individual factors varies among stages of change of cycling behaviour. ► Focusing on physical barriers alone is likely to have little impact on bicycle use. ► Determining key factors specific to local context and users can guide cycling policy.
Examining the potential for modal change: Motivators and barriers for bicycle commuting in Dar-es-Salaam
Alphonse Nkurunziza, Mark Zuidgeest, Mark Brussel, Martin Van Maarseveen
Transport Policy, Volume 24, November 2012, Pages 249–259
This research paper, published in the journal Transport Policy in November 2012, examines evidence from 20 behavioural change projects and identifies common and specific elements which led to their success. The paper identifies best practice elements for travel campaigns and finds successful design elements are specific to target group and behavioural aims, and that social marketing provides a solid guiding set of principles for campaign design.
Fig. 1. Conceptual framework of the dimensions of a travel awareness campaign.
An examination of the evidence from twenty case studies of behavioural change projects identifies common and specific elements which led to their success. Using evidence from a recent EU project, the paper discusses the design of travel behaviour change campaigns, with specific reference to the theoretical underpinnings and practical approaches of social marketing. Important design elements include clear measureable aims, a combination of communications and face-to-face marketing approaches and formative research to build a holistic picture of the target audience and identify potential barriers to behavioural change. The varying nature of campaigns reflects a need to improve and synchronise evaluation, with particular focus on the actual design of the campaign.
► An exploration of the design of design travel behaviour change campaigns. ► Best practice elements for travel campaigns are identified. ► Successful design elements are specific to target group and behavioural aims. ► Social marketing provides a solid guiding set of principles for campaign design. ► There is a need to evaluate design itself in addition to impacts on behaviour.
What are the ingredients of successful travel behavioural change campaigns?
Nick Davies, Transport Policy, Volume 24, November 2012, Pages 19–29
This report, published by the Australian Institute of Health and Welfare in November 2012 is the eighth in a series on hospitalisations due to injury and poisoning in Australia. It covers the 2009-10 financial year. A total of 421,065 injury cases required hospitalisation during the 12 months. The leading causes of hospitalised injury were unintentional falls, followed by transport accidents. Males were than four times as likely to be hospitalised as a result of a pedal cycle accident as females. Fifty-nine per cent of injured pedal cyclists were involved in a non-collision transport accident.
This report, covering injuries resulting in admission to Australian hospitals in the financial year 2009-10, is the eighth in the series that started in 2001-02.
The focus of the report is community injury (that is, injuries typically sustained in places such as the home, workplace or street).
An estimated 421,065 community injury cases, of which 242,478 were males, required hospitalisation during 2009-10, with males outnumbering females at a ratio of about 1.5:1.0.
A total of 1,668,462 patient days were attributable to hospitalised community injury, with a mean length of stay of 4 days. About one in ten community injury cases (11%) were classified as high threat to life in 2009-10. Nearly all cases of drowning and near-drowning were considered high threat (83%). More than one in five transportation and falls-related injury cases were classified as high threat to life, and accounted for 81% of high threat to life community injury cases overall.
The leading cause of hospitalised community injury was falls (38%), followed by unintentional transport-related incidents (13%).
Overall car occupant injured in transport accident (V40–V49) was the most common type of external causefor transport-related injury cases (32%, n = 17,448). For males, the most common type wasMotorcycle rider injured in transport accident (34%) and for females was car occupant injured intransport accident (50%). The highest proportion of both male and female car occupants who were injured were men and women aged 25–44 (followed by young men and young womenaged 15–24).
Males were than four times as likely to be hospitalised as a result of a pedal cycle accident as females (males n = 7,733; females n = 1,891). The highest proportion of pedal cycle injuries requiring hospitalisation occurred in women aged 25–44 (30%) followed by boys and girlsa ged 0–14 (29% respectively).
Fifty-nine per cent of injured pedal cyclists were involved in a non-collision transport accident and 13% were hit by a car, pick-up truck or van.
The Australian Institute of Health and Welfare is an Australian Government agency established to to provide reliable, regular and relevant information and statistics on Australia's health and welfare.
In November 2012 the New Zealand Cycle Trail announced that research was planned to evaluate the short and medium term outcomes of the Trail and to establish a sustainable framework for future evaluation. The project will be managed by the Ministry of Business, Innovation and Employment and a report is due in mid 2013.
The New Zealand Cycle Trail (NZCT) has been developed to attract new visitors to regions around New Zealand and support economic growth. With some trails are fully open, research is planned to evaluate the short and medium term outcomes of the New Zealand Cycle Trail and also to establish a sustainable framework for future evaluation.
The project is led by the Ministry of Business, Innovation and Employment. The first programme of work is scheduled to be undertaken over summer 2013.
The evaluation will include interviews and data collection. Information will be sought directly from cycle trails, including the use of the trails, spending by cycle tourists, satisfaction of those using the trails and the creation of employment and new business opportunities.
The intention is to collect data from various sources such as the cycle trail trusts overseeing local trails, regional tourism organisations, economic development agencies and related community organisations. Information will also be sought from other sources such as tourism surveys (International Visitors Survey and Domestic Travel Survey) and regional data.
Additionally, four in-depth cycle trail case studies will be undertaken with trails that are fully open. Motu Trails, Mountains to Sea Trail, Hauraki Rail Trail and The Queenstown Trail have agreed to participate in these studies.
These trails offer a geographical spread and a range of cycling experiences. The case studies will involve focus groups representing businesses impacted by the cycle trails, business surveys and surveys of people using the cycle trail.
Specialist researchers Angus & Associates and TRC Tourism have been contracted by the Ministry to collect in-depth case study information over summer.
It is expected that he final report, and full details about ongoing evaluation and reporting, will be available on the Ministry website from mid-2013 and available for public use.
This report, prepared for the Florida Department of Transport and published in October 2012, identifies a range of performance measures to support Florida's moves towards a multi-modal transport system. It aims to provide new measures that can be used to assess development and land use proposals from a multi-modal perspective.
Sanibel, Florida, bike trail by Bonnie Gross
The performance measures are provided in five major categories:
The report also describes four Florida community systems and their review methods; and reviews two development scenarios to compare how different land use forms affect the results of various performance measures.
In 2010 doctors from the Donders Institute for Brain, Cognition, and Behavior, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Center, Nijmegen, the Netherlands posted a case study in the New England Journal for Medicine. The study was of a 58-year-old man who suffered from "gait freezing". He was incapable of walking but he could ride a bicycle. The research may lead to new forms of physical therapy and exercise for people with Parkinson's disease or other neurological disorders that affect movement, co-ordination or balance.
A 58-year-old man with a 10-year history of idiopathic Parkinson's disease presented with an incapacitating freezing of gait.
The patient had severe difficulties initiating gait and was able to take only a few shuffling steps when provided with a visual cue (the examiner's foot placed in front of the patient). Attempts to walk evolved rapidly into forward festination and ultimately a fall to the ground. Axial turning was impossible. However, the patient's ability to ride a bicycle was remarkably preserved.
Gait freezing recurred instantaneously after he dismounted the bicycle.
This striking kinesia paradoxica may be explained by the bicycle's rotating pedals, which may act as an external pacing cue. Alternatively, the motor-control mechanisms involved in gait as compared with other activities engaging the legs, such as cycling, could be affected differentially in Parkinson's disease.
Cycling may offer a useful approach for exercise training in patients with Parkinson's who are “grounded” by severe freezing of gait.
Catherine Hess's essay about the research was runner up in the 2012 Wellcome science writing prize. Her essay was published in the Observer.
In November 2012, researchers reported at the Radiological Society of North America 2012 Scientific Assembly and Annual Meeting in Chicago, that Cycling on stationary bikes may benefit people with Parkinson's disease, especially if they cycle hard and fast. The study found cycling, especially at rates above what patients would choose for themselves, appeared to make regions of the brain that deal with movement connect to each other more effectively.
People with Parkinson's disease benefit from exercise programs on stationary bicycles, with the greatest effect for those who pedal faster, according to a study presented today at the annual meeting of the Radiological Society of North America (RSNA). Functional connectivity magnetic resonance imaging (fcMRI) data showed that faster pedaling led to greater connectivity in brain areas associated with motor ability.
Parkinson's disease is a chronic, progressive disorder of the central nervous system. Early-stage symptoms like shaking and difficulty with walking eventually may progress to cognitive and behavioral problems such as dementia. An estimated 7 to 10 million people worldwide live with Parkinson's disease, according to the Parkinson's Disease Foundation, with most cases occurring after the age of 50.
As the disease progresses and the frequency of side effects increases, the therapeutic window begins to close. Deep brain stimulation is an effective therapy for late-stage Parkinson's disease, but is an invasive and costly procedure.
Exercise is thought to have beneficial effects on Parkinson's disease. Jay L. Alberts, Ph.D., neuroscientist at the Cleveland Clinic Lerner Research Institute in Cleveland, saw this firsthand in 2003 when he rode a tandem bicycle across Iowa with a Parkinson's disease patient to raise awareness of the disease. The patient experienced improvements in her symptoms after the ride.
"The finding was serendipitous," Dr. Alberts recalled. "I was pedaling faster than her, which forced her to pedal faster. She had improvements in her upper extremity function, so we started to look at the possible mechanism behind this improved function." As part of this inquiry, Dr. Alberts, researcher Chintan Shah, B.S., and their Cleveland Clinic colleagues, recently used fcMRI to study the effect of exercise on 26 Parkinson's disease patients.
"By measuring changes in blood oxygenation levels in the brain, fcMRI allows us to look at the functional connectivity between different brain regions," Shah said.
The patients underwent bicycle exercise sessions three times a week for eight weeks. Some patients exercised at a voluntary level and others underwent forced-rate exercise, pedaling at a speed above their voluntary rate. The researchers used a modified exercise bike to induce forced-rate activity.
"We developed an algorithm to control a motor on the bike and used a controller to sense the patient's rate of exertion and adjust the motor based on their input," Dr. Alberts said.
fcMRI was conducted before and after the eight weeks of exercise therapy and again as follow-up four weeks later. The research team calculated brain activation and connectivity levels from the fcMRI results and correlated the data with average pedaling rate. Results showed increases in task-related connectivity between the primary motor cortex and the posterior region of the brain's thalamus. Faster pedaling rate was the key factor related to these improvements, which were still evident at follow-up.
"The results show that forced-rate bicycle exercise is an effective, low-cost therapy for Parkinson's disease," Shah said.
Dr. Alberts noted that that while faster pedaling led to more significant results, not all Parkinson's patients need to do forced-rate exercise to see improvement.
"We're now looking at this phenomenon in patients with exercise bikes in their home," he said, "and other exercises like swimming and rowing on tandem machines may provide similar benefits."
"Exercise Therapy for Parkinson's Disease: Faster Pedaling is Related to Greater Improvement in Motor Connectivity"; Shah,C, Beall,E, Frankemolle,A, Penko,A, Phillips,M, Lowe,M, Alberts,J; presented at Session LL-NRS-MOPM on 26 Nov 2012, Radiological Society of North America 2012 Scientific Assembly and Annual Meeting, Chicago.
Radiological Society of North America media release.
In November 2012 the UK public health body the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE), which develops clinical guidelines for the NHS, released guidelines putting cycling and walking at the centre of efforts to improve the nation’s health, saying they should become the norm for short journeys and should be encouraged throughout local communities.
The guidelines outline the role physical activity can play in improving health and maintaining a healthy lifestyle, with NICE saying that “local authorities, schools and workplaces should introduce ways to enable their communities to be more physically active and change their behaviours.”
According to NICE, the benefits of regular physical exercise include cutting the risk of conditions including stroke, type 2 diabetes and coronary heart disease by as much as 50 per cent.
However, nearly two thirds of men (61 per cent) and almost three quarters of women (71 per cent) aged 16+ do not get enough exercise.
It’s a similar picture among children, where only half of boys and one third of girls aged 2 to 10 years meeting recommended daily level of physical activity.
That lack of physical exercise is leading to an obesity epidemic which NICE likens the threat to that posed by smoking, which in turn will lead to a deterioration in the nation’s health as well as placing further strain on healthcare resources.
The Guidelines recommend coordinated action to identify and address the barriers that may be discouraging people from walking and cycling more often or at all, including:
The guidelines and background information are available on the NICE website.
This illustrated guide, published by the Asian Development Bank in 2011, provides a rich collection of images of sustainable urban transport initiatives from around the world. It considers the transport problems evident in many cities in Asia, including high levels of energy consumption, carbon dioxide emissions, congestion, road casualties, urban sprawl, and social exclusion.
The projections are that these worsening trends are set to continue. A change in course is recommended, with a much clearer focus on urban planning, traffic demand management, public transit, non-motorized transport, streetscape design, road planning, low-emission vehicles, and freight planning. This new paradigm for sustainable urban transport can support a much better quality of urban life in our cities in Asia.
The publication can be dowloaded as a PDF for free.
Changing Course in Urban Transport: An Illustrated Guide | 11.97MB PDF
In June 2012 the Asian Development Bank and seven other multilateral development banks announced their commitment to provide more than $175 billion of loans and grants for transport in developing countries over the next decade.
$175 Billion to Scale Up Support for Transport Announced at Rio+20 | Link to media release
This research was published in the journal Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice in December 2012. The study demonstrates that perceived inconveniences of combining bicycle and public transport differ based on the users’ sex, riding frequency, trip purpose, and environmental awareness.The results suggest that a male cyclist who is a commuter with a high monthly riding frequency and who is environmentally conscious has a better ability than their counterpart to overcome perceived inconveniences during travel using a bicycle and public transport.
Fig. 1. Process of using bicycle transit.
Bicycles and transit systems are considered to be the pinnacle of green transportation. The combined use of the two could provide a competitive alternative for an integrated, green, and seamless service, yet relatively few studies have investigated the multimodal integration problems of the entire service chain from the perspective of users.
Users’ perceived inconvenience during travel can be regarded as a latent construct that describes an unobservable and immeasurable characteristic. Nevertheless, the traditional Likert method in an ordinal scale causes a misleading statistical inference. The Rasch model eliminates such bias generated by an ordinal scale through a logistic linear transformation, and it compares person parameters with item parameters, which are then subjected to a logarithmic transformation along a logit scale to clearly identify which service items’ inconvenience cannot be easily overcome by certain users.
This empirical study demonstrates that perceived inconveniences differ based on the users’ sex, riding frequency, trip purpose, and environmental awareness. The differential item functioning analysis that was adopted in this study can identify the critical factors leading to the differences in perceived inconvenience.
Our empirical results suggest that a male cyclist who is a commuter with a high monthly riding frequency and who is environmentally conscious has a better ability than their counterpart to overcome perceived inconveniences during travel using a bicycle-transit service.
To effectively mitigate users’ perceived inconvenience, the Rasch analytical results suggest that the improvement of the intra-transit system factors in the short term and the improvement of external environmental factors in the long term will be successful.
The information herein proves useful for transportation planners and policy makers when considering the special travel needs of certain groups to create a user-friendly bicycle-transit travel environment that promotes its usage.
Evaluating bicycle-transit users’ perceptions of intermodal inconvenience
Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, Volume 46, Issue 10, December 2012, Pages 1690–1706
Yung-Hsiang Cheng, Kuo-Chu Liu
This research was published in the journal Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice in December 2012. To better understand bicyclists’ preferences for facility types, GPS units were used to observe the behaviour of 164 cyclists in Portland, Oregon, USA for several days each. The research found that cyclists are sensitive to distance, turn frequency, slope, intersection control, and traffic volumes. Cyclists place relatively high value on off-street bike paths, bicycle boulevards, and bridge facilities. Route preferences differ between commute and non-commute trips.
Floating bridge, part of the east side trail along the Willamette River in Portland, John Luton
To better understand bicyclists’ preferences for facility types, GPS units were used to observe the behavior of 164 cyclists in Portland, Oregon, USA for several days each. Trip purpose and several other trip-level variables recorded by the cyclists, and the resulting trips were coded to a highly detailed bicycle network.The authors used the 1449 non-exercise, utilitarian trips to estimate a bicycle route choice model.
The model used a choice set generation algorithm based on multiple permutations of path attributes and was formulated to account for overlapping route alternatives. The findings suggest that cyclists are sensitive to the effects of distance, turn frequency, slope, intersection control (e.g. presence or absence of traffic signals), and traffic volumes.
In addition, cyclists appear to place relatively high value on off-street bike paths, enhanced neighborhood bikeways with traffic calming features (aka “bicycle boulevards”), and bridge facilities. Bike lanes more or less exactly offset the negative effects of adjacent traffic, but were no more or less attractive than a basic low traffic volume street.
Finally, route preferences differ between commute and other utilitarian trips; cyclists were more sensitive to distance and less sensitive to other infrastructure characteristics for commute trips.
Where do cyclists ride? A route choice model developed with revealed preference GPS data
Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, Volume 46, Issue 10, December 2012, Pages 1730–1740
Joseph Broach, Jennifer Dill, John Gliebe
Smart Move, The City of Adelaide’s Transport and Movement Strategy 2012-22 outlines Council’s desired transport and movement outcomes for the City, and the strategies to achieve these over the next 10 years. The Strategy aims to make the City more accessible by accommodating greater travel choices to meet the needs of all users. The Strategy’s key priority is to create a people-friendly City by improving conditions for pedestrians, cyclists and those using public transport. It was released in November 2012.
The Strategy recognises the need to balance competing street demands between pedestrians, cyclists, public transport, freight and motorists.
It identifies eight key outcomes that reflect the aspirations and qualities the City must build on to achieve an integrated and sustainable movement network, and in turn fulfil the Strategic Plan vision: One City, Many Places.
Guided by the Streets for People:Compendium for South Australian Practice, the Strategy establishes the future role of all City streets and is designed to achieve the best balance between movement and placemaking needs.
This report, published in November 2012 by the Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, provides summary data on trends in hospitalised childhood injury for 1 July 1999 to 30 June 2007. Information is provided for three age groups (0-4, 5-9 and 10-14 year-olds) for each year. Falls were the main cause of hospitalised injury and transport-related injuries were also common. For all age groups, pedal cycles were the most frequent mode of transport involved in a transport injury.
This report provides summary data on trends in hospitalised childhood injury for the period1 July 1999 to 30 June 2007. Information is provided for three age groups (0–4, 5–9 and 10–14) for each year; information is also presented on the top five causes of hospitalised injury to children in Australia.
Almost half a million children were hospitalised as a result of an injury during the reporting period, boys outnumbering girls by a factor of 2 to 1.
Falls were the main cause of hospitalised injury (n = 193,141), and transport-related injuries were also common (n = 66,864).
For all age groups, pedal cycles were the most frequent mode of transport involved in a transport injury.
This strategy, developed by the Vancouver based transport provider TransLink, aims to guide regional cycling investment and programming to significantly increase cycling and improve cycling safety. The document, published in July 2011, describes the state of cycling in Metro Vancouver, assesses the potential to increase cycling, articulates a clear vision, sets goals and measurable targets, and outlines a comprehensive package of strategies.
TransLink is Metro Vancouver’s regional transportation authority. The organisation is responsible for regional public transport, cycling and commuting options as well as AirCare and Intelligent Transportation System programs.
TransLink shares responsibility for the Major Road Network (MRN) and regional cycling with municipalities in Metro Vancouver. TransLink is the first North American transportation authority to be responsible for the planning, financing and managing of all public transportin addition to major regional roads and bridges.
TransLink’s 30-Year Transportation Strategy (Transport 2040) provides high-level policy direction and the 3-Year Financial andTransportation Plan contains budgets and project implementation details.
The Regional Cycling Strategy is one regional strategy nested between Transport 2040 and the 3-Year Plan, which provides more focused regional-level policy direction around a specific mode or subject area. This Strategy will guide TransLink’s approach to cycling into the future.
Since cycling in this region largely occurs on municipal orprovincial roads, many of the critical actions outlined in this Strategy fall under those jurisdictions. Accordingly, the Strategy is not prescriptive but instead aims to provide a unified regional framework from which all partners can draw relevant strategies and actions for incorporation into their own plans and programs.
In October 2012 Streetfilms produced a short documentary about the strategy and the links between cycling infrastructure and public transport in Vancouver.
Four technical reports provided guidance toward the development of this Strategy:
In November 2012 NSW Roads and Maritime Services published How to Prepare a Bike Plan guidelines and online tool. The guide, predominately for local councils, can be used by anyone who wants to develop a bike plan, for example schools, hospitals, universities and businesses. The online tool is designed to work in conjunction with the guideline and will help create, organise and manage the delivery of a bike plan.
A bike plan provides a coordinated and strategic approach to delivering cycling infrastructure and promotional programs for a local community. The plan enables government and the community to develop cycling objectives and identify the activities needed to achieve them.
A bike plan will be instrumental in the process to secure future funding for projects. It can also be used as a checklist for all the aspects that should be included in a new or existing bike plan.
Bike to Work was established as a national program in Denmark in 1998. The program, which runs in May each year, encourages employees to cycle to work. Around 100,000 people participate each year with employees forming teams that compete for prizes. Participants can also have their workplaces assessed for 'bike friendliness'.
The program is coordinated by the Danish Cyclists' Union and the Danish Sports Federation. It is considered Denmark's largest exercise program.
• Bike to Work 2011 had 93,478 participants and 9,141 teams
• Together, participants cycled on 1,225,160 days and covered 12,686,443 km (equivalent to 3698 Tour de France cycling races).
• 68% of participants are women
• The bulk of participants are aged 36 to 55 years
• 46% of participants work in the metropolitan area
• 46% of participants have more than 7 miles to work, 17% have more than 15 miles to work
• 88% participate in the campaign to get exercise
• 60% indicate CO 2 -savings as a major incentive for cycling
• 86% say the social in the workplace affects their participation
• 80% of participants cycle all the way to and from work, 10% stated that it varies from day to day, 5% combines the bike on the train
• 73% exercised more than 30 minutes a day before the campaign, 27% stated that campaign has led them to exercise more
About cycling in Denmark in general: • one in six of all trips are made by bicycle • 32% of people cycle to work or school every day or several times a week • 400 - 500,000 bicycles are sold annually • Denamrk has around 4 million bicycles with 9 out of 10 people owning a bike • It is estimated that there are over 7,000 km of cycle tracks on the municipal road network • There are approx. 950 km cycle track along the state road network • There are 12.500 km of signposted cycle routes.
Bike to Work: Join the Cycle Team | English Brochure 2.5MB PDF
http://www.vcta.dk/Forside.aspx | Program website
Rates of bicycle commuting currently hover around 1 -2% in most Australian capital cities, although 17.8% of Australians report riding at least once per week. The most commonly stated reason for choosing not to ride a bicycle is fear of motorised vehicles. This paper, published in the Journal of the Australasian College of Road Safety in September 2012, sets out to examine the literature and offer a commentary regarding the role fear plays as a barrier to bicycle riding.
The paper also provides an estimate of the relative risk of driving and riding, on a per trip basis. An analysis of the existing literature finds fear of motorised traffic to be disproportionate to actual levels of risk to bicycle riders. Moreover, the health benefits of bicycling outweigh the risks of collision.
Rather than actual collisions forming the basis of people’s fear, it appears plausible that near collisions (which occur far more frequently) may be a significant cause for the exaggerated levels of fear associated with bicycle riding. In order to achieve the Australian Government’s goal of doublingbike riding participation, this review suggests it will benecessary to counter fear through the creation of a low risk traffic environment (both perceived and real), involving marketing/promotional campaigns and the development of a comprehensive bicycle infrastructure network and lower speed limits.
Understanding the fear of bicycle riding in Australia
E Fishman, S Washington, N Haworth
This research, published in The Cochrane Library in November 2012, suggests that physical exercise such as aerobic walking and aerobic cycling can help to reduce fatigue both during and after treatment for cancer. The benefits of exercise on fatigue were observed specifically for people with breast cancer and prostate cancer.
Fatigue, or tiredness, is recognised as a side effect of cancer and its treatment. In the past people with cancer were encouraged to rest if they felt fatigued. It is important that individuals with cancer receive appropriate support and advice to help them cope with any side effects of the treatment or disease. Physical exercise has been suggested as helpful in reducing the fatigue that is associated with cancer. A number of studies have been carried out to investigate the effects of exercise both during and after treatment.
This review was carried out to evaluate the effect of physical exercise on fatigue related to cancer. Fifty-six studies, involving a total of 4068 participants, were included in this review. Results suggest that physical exercise such as aerobic walking and aerobic cycling can help to reduce fatigue both during and after treatment for cancer. The benefits of exercise on fatigue were observed specifically for people with breast cancer and prostate cancer.
Walking, cycling may ease 'cancer fatigue' | Link to ABC news report
In 2008 David Byrne and the New York City Department of Transportation, in conjunction with New York art gallery PaceWildenstein, unveiled nine unique bicycle racks. The racks were designed by David Byrne and installed in various locations throughout Manhattan and Brooklyn.
Byrne was invited to join the panel of jurors selected by the DOT to judge a design competition for outdoor and indoor bicycle racks. Inspired by the city's initiative, he submitted some original design ideas of his own named after specific locations and neighborhoods, which the DOT enthusiastically agreed to install. The bike racks are now on permanent loan to the city, and will remain in their locations.
This link to David Byrne's website includes background information about the project, photos of the racks, a map of where they are installed and links to media reports.
In November 2012 the Australian Bicycle Council published the National Cycling Strategy 2011-16: Implementation Report 2011. This report provides an overview of progress towards the objectives of the National Cycling Strategy 2011-16. The Australian Bicycle Council’s National Cycling Participation Survey provided the baseline for the Strategy’s target of doubling the number of peoplecycling in Australia by 2016. In this first year of the strategy Australian states and territories invested $89.08 million in cycling related infrastructure, education and promotion to reach that target.
In this first year of the National Cycling Strategy:
Sustrans' Technical Information Note on Cycle Network Signing was published in October 2012. This information has been prepared to provide assistance for people involved with signing cycle and shared use routes and links within a cycle network. In particular, it offers guidance on the: recommended standard of signs, signs required and where they should be located, monitoring and maintenance of signs and sign posts and sign board details.
This information is based on Sustrans’ extensive experience with developing the National CycleNetwork and statutory regulations and guidance.
One of the key requirements in developing safe and attractive places to cycle is comprehensive direction signing that links paths, tracks, lanes and roads together that make up the network.
The attractiveness and utility of any network to potential users will, in part, depend on the quality, coherence, consistency and frequency of the signs. Inadequate, missing or misleading signage is the main concern expressed by users on a network. Visitors and local residents should be able to follow all routes in any direction, without needing a map.
Signing advertises the presence of cyclists to other road users and advises them that there is an alternative to using the car. Cohesive and continuous signing of a route or network gives first–time users a good impression of the area, and encourages further exploration.
Signing should be appropriate to the user and the location. Too many signs or signs that are too large may add little or nothing the cycling experience but clutter views and streetscapes. Cycle path surface painting is a useful alternative to post–mounted signing and usually only one or the other is required.